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Table 1 Sample characteristics at t1

From: Effectiveness of inpatient versus outpatient complex treatment programs in depressive disorders: a quasi-experimental study under naturalistic conditions

 BID (N = 400)Inpatient (N = 193) 
 Missings (n)M (SD) or n (%)M (SD) or n (%)Statistics (df)
Female (%)0245 (61.3)116 (60.1)χ2 (1) = 0.07; p = .79
Referral, n (%)19 (3.2)   
 General Practitioner (private practice) 9 (2.3)8 (4.2) 
 Psychiatrist (private practice) 269 (70.2)106 (55.5) 
 Psychotherapist (private practice) 19 (5.0)9 (4.7)χ2 (6) = 94.11; p < .001
 Outpatient Service (hospital) 65 (17.0)22 (11.5) 
 Hospital transfer 039 (20.4%) 
 Counselling of Health Insurance 13 (3.4)0 
 Others 8 (2.1)7 (3.7) 
Age; M (SD)043.1 (11.2)41.5 (12.2)t (351.82) = 1.56; p = .11
Partnership; n (%)21 (3.5)240 (63.2)85 (44.3)χ2 (1) = 18.55; p < .001
Highest school educationa; n (%)14 (2.4)173 (44.7)86 (44.8)χ2 (1) = 0.000; p = .98
Current employment; n (%)21 (3.5)277 (72.9)98 (51.0)χ2 (1) = 26.98; p < .001
Clinical diagnoses; n (%)12 (2.0)   
 Low depressive episode/Dysthymia/Adjustment disorder 62 (15.7)3 (1.6%) 
 Moderate depressive episode 291 (73.5)61 (33.0)χ2 (2) = 194.44; p < .001
 Severe depressive episode 43 (10.9)121 (65.4) 
Number of diagnoses; M (SD) 1.2 (0.4)1.3 (0.5)t (323.84) = − 0.97; p = .30
Severity of depression (low to moderate versus severe); n (%)2 (0.3)346 (86.5)64 (33.5)χ2 (1) = 170.86; p < .001
Recurrent depressive disorder; n (%)1 (0.2)67 (16.8)81 (42.2)χ2 (1) = 44.77; p < .001
Suicidal thoughtsb; n (%)45 (7.6)   
 - Score 1 159 (43.6%)90 (49.2%)χ2 (3) = 6.41;
 - Scores 2 and 3 19 (5.2)17 (9.3) 
Psychotropic Medicationc; n (%)45 (7.6)291 (80.6)179 (95.7)χ2 (1) = 23.05; p < .001
  1. Legend: ain Germany Abitur; bSuicidal thoughts = Item 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II (1 = “I have thoughts of killing myself, but I would not carry them out”, 2 = “I would like to kill myself”, 3 = “I would kill myself if I had the chance”); cprescribed medication