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Table 1 Characteristics of participants according to education level

From: Education level and risk of postpartum depression: results from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

 Highest education level
≥16 years>12–<16 years≤12 years
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Subtotal 19,538(21.8)37,832(42.2)32,307(36.0)
Mothers
 Age, yearsn19,470 37,696 32,110 
Mean32.5 31.9 29.9 
± SD± 4.1 ± 4.6 ± 5.6 
 BMI, kg/m2<18.53340(17.1)5890(15.6)5278(16.4)
18.5–<2514,952(76.6)28,132(74.4)22,640(70.1)
≥251236(6.3)3793(10.0)4362(13.5)
 ParityPrimipara9694(49.6)16,502(43.6)12,958(40.1)
Multipara9839(50.4)21,314(56.4)19,333(59.9)
 Smoking statusNever15,253(78.6)23,354(62.1)13,432(42.0)
Former4062(20.9)13,380(35.6)15,735(49.3)
Current104(0.5)851(2.3)2784(8.7)
 Alcohol intakeNever18,145(93.4)34,771(92.4)28,392(88.7)
Former734(3.8)1565(4.2)1741(5.4)
Current (1–3 times / month)417(2.2)905(2.4)1196(3.7)
Current (≥1 times / week)135(0.7)379(1.0)680(2.1)
 Physical activity,n18,754 35,977 30,689 
 METs h/dayMean2.8 4.4 4.2 
± SD± 5.5 ± 9.0 ± 8.8 
 EmployedNo7584(39.0)15,980(42.5)17,166(53.7)
Yes11,864(61.0)21,621(57.5)14,792(46.3)
 History of depressionNo18,892(97.1)36,700(97.5)30,965(96.3)
Yes557(2.9)961(2.6)1181(3.7)
 History of anxiety disorderNo19,022(97.8)36,731(97.5)30,975(96.4)
Yes427(2.2)930(2.5)1171(3.6)
 History of dysautonomiaNo18,837(96.9)36,403(96.7)30,706(95.5)
Yes612(3.2)1258(3.3)1440(4.5)
 History of schizophreniaNo19,422(99.9)37,609(99.9)32,072(99.8)
Yes27(0.1)52(0.1)74(0.2)
 Feeding methodBreastfeeding only9009(46.4)16,402(43.7)12,047(37.6)
Mixed feeding10,288(53.0)20,826(55.4)19,158(59.8)
Formula only113(0.6)349(0.9)813(2.5)
Family
 Marital StatusMarried19,065(98.2)36,430(97.1)29,419(92.2)
Single320(1.7)966(2.6)1913(6.0)
Divorced or widowed33(0.2)142(0.4)581(1.8)
 Annual household income,<43941(20.9)13,030(36.7)16,460(56.3)
 million yen4–<66231(33.0)12,829(36.1)8589(29.4)
≥68706(46.1)9640(27.2)4168(14.3)
 Passive smokingNo12,818(66.0)18,722(49.8)10,793(33.7)
Outdoors6467(33.3)18,171(48.3)19,894(62.2)
Yes152(0.8)694(1.9)1323(4.1)
  1. All p values of the results of χ2 test and analysis of variance were < .001
  2. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, METs metabolic equivalents