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Table 3 Mean (SD) scores and ORs for the symptoms of postpartum depression according to education level

From: Education level and risk of postpartum depression: results from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

 Highest education levelp-value for trend
≥16 years>12–<16 years≤12 years
(n = 19,621)(n = 38,030)(n = 32,543) 
1 month
 EPDS total
  Mean (SD)4.83 (3.26) 5.01 (3.39) 5.49 (3.86)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.04(1.04–1.05)1.17(1.16–1.18)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.04(1.03–1.05)1.12(1.11–1.13)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.01(1.00–1.02)1.05(1.04–1.07)< .001
 EPDS anxiety
  Mean (SD)2.79 (1.87) 2.88 (1.91) 3.08 (2.02)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.05(1.04–1.06)1.16(1.15–1.18)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.04(1.03–1.05)1.10(1.08–1.11)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.02(1.01–1.03)1.05(1.04–1.07)< .001
 EPDS depression
  Mean (SD)0.25 (0.80) 0.29 (0.88) 0.47 (1.16)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.20(1.16–1.24)1.97(1.91–2.04)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.17(1.13–1.22)1.75(1.69–1.81)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.04(1.01–1.08)1.31(1.26–1.36)< .001
 EPDS anhedonia
  Mean (SD)0.18 (0.56) 0.19 (0.59) 0.22 (0.64)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.06(1.02–1.11)1.24(1.19–1.29)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.07(1.02–1.11)1.24(1.19–1.30)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.03(0.98–1.07)1.11(1.06–1.16)< .001
6 months
 EPDS total
  Mean (SD)4.35 (3.19) 4.50 (3.32) 5.01 (3.97)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.04(1.03–1.05)1.18(1.17–1.19)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.03(1.02–1.04)1.12(1.11–1.14)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.00(0.99–1.00)1.03(1.02–1.04)< .001
 EPDS anxiety
  Mean (SD)2.53 (1.82) 2.61 (1.88) 2.82 (2.05)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.04(1.03–1.05)1.16(1.15–1.18)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.03(1.02–1.05)1.10(1.09–1.12)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.00(0.98–1.01)1.02(1.01–1.04)< .001
 EPDS depression
  Mean (SD)0.32 (0.92) 0.36 (0.99) 0.56 (1.34)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.16(1.12–1.19)1.82(1.76–1.88)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.13(1.09–1.17)1.57(1.52–1.63)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.00(0.97–1.04)1.18(1.14–1.23)< .001
 EPDS anhedonia
  Mean (SD)0.08 (0.38) 0.08 (0.40) 0.11 (0.50)  
  OR (95% CI)
   Crude1.00––––1.13(1.06–1.20)1.49(1.39–1.59)< .001
   Model11.00––––1.13(1.06–1.21)1.47(1.37–1.57)< .001
   Model21.00––––1.02(0.96–1.09)1.14(1.06–1.23)< .001
  1. The table shows the imputed data for the 90,194 mothers in the study
  2. Boldface indicates statistical significance at the level of 5%
  3. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
  4. Crude: crude model
  5. Model 1: Partial model adjusted for physician-diagnosed history of depression, anxiety disorder, dysautonomia, and schizophrenia
  6. Model 2: Full model adjusted for all the covariates of the model 1: maternal age; body mass index; parity; smoking status; alcohol intake; physical activity; employment status; feeding method; marital status; annual household income; and passive smoking status