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Table 3 Stepwise regression analyses: The significant main effects and interactions for groups and perinatal complications on executive function, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT)

From: Perinatal complications and executive dysfunction in early-onset schizophrenia

EF measureIndependent variablesStatistics (N = 65–71) 
WCST Trials to complete first categoryGroupB 0.20 β 0.23 t 3.90 ***Adj. R2 .24
OC: Emergency cesarean sectionB 0.16 β 0.19 t 1.80
Group x OCB 0.33 β 0.39 t 3.76 *** #
GroupB 0.25 β 0.29 t 2.77 **Adj. R2 .25
OC: VacuumB 0.26 β 0.30 t 2.91 **
Group x OCB 0.40 β 0.42 t 3.97 *** #
GroupB 0.15 β 0.16 t 1.51Adj. R2 .23
OC: Gestational lengthB − 0.10 β −0.12 t − 0.97
Group x OCB − 0.34 β − 0.47 t − 4.42 *** #
GroupB 0.17 β 0.28 t 2.43 *Adj. R2 .15
OC: Baby’s lengthB 0.06 β 0.10 t 0.67
Group x OCB 0.33 β 0.34 t 2.34 * #
WCST Total errorsGroupB 0.27 β 0.29 t 2.64 *Adj. R2 .19
OC: Apgar 5-minB − 0.17 β −0.18 t − 1.44
Group x OCB 0.33 β 0.43 t 3.55 *** #
WCST Perseverative responsesGroupB 0.28 β 0.29 t 2.65 *Adj. R2 .18
OC: Apgar 5-minB − 0.19 β −0.19 t − 1.58
Group x OCB 0.32 β 0.42 t 3.41 *** £
WCST Perseverative errorsGroupB 0.23 β 0.24 t 2.18 *Adj. R2 .14
OC: Apgar 5-minB − 0.13 β −0.13 t − 1.05
Group x OCB 0.30 β 0.39 t 3.09 ** #
CWIT Inhibition
Corrected errors
GroupB 0.15 β 0.15 t 1.32Adj. R2 .10
OC: ForcepsB 0.12 β 0.12 t 1.02
Group x OCB 0.39 β 0.35 t 3.06 ** #
CWIT
Switching
Total errors
GroupB 0.09 β 0.09 t 0.79Adj. R2 .11
OC: ForcepsB 0.08 β 0.08 t 0.67
Group x OCB 0.37 β 0.33 t 2.84 ** #
CWIT
Switching
Corrected errors
GroupB 0.19 β 0.18 t 1.62Adj. R2 .11
OC: ForcepsB 0.13 β 0.13 t 1.15
Group x OCB 0.39 β 0.35 t 3.07 ** #
  1. Left column: Dependent variable. Group: EOS vs. controls. OC: perinatal obstetric complication. Group x OC: Interaction term. B: Unstandardized Coefficients Beta, β: Standardized regression coefficient, Adj. R2: Adjusted R Square, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001, # Interaction effect due to EOS group, £ Interaction effect due to control group