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Table 3 Maternal and child characteristics according to maternal depressive symptoms trajectories groups

From: Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from the antenatal period to 24-months postnatal follow-up: findings from the 2015 Pelotas birth cohort

Variables Maternal depressive symptoms trajectories groups p-Value
Group 1 “Low” Group 2 “Moderate low” Group 3 “increasing” Group 4 “Decreasing-persistent” Group 5 “Chronic high”
n = 1109 n = 1219 n = 298 n = 294 n = 120
Maternal variables
 ABEP, mean (sd)a 28.0 (9.6) 25.8 (9.0) 23.5 (8.8) 21.2 (8.3) 18.8 (6.3) < 0.001
 Schooling (years), mean (sd)a 11.6 (3.7) 10.5 (3.7) 9.3 (3.7) 8.2 (3.6) 7.3 (2.9) < 0.001
 Maternal age (years), mean (sd)a 28.1 (6.2) 27.1 (6.6) 27.4 (6.9) 25.8 (6.6) 27.0 (6.9) < 0.001
 Single mother, (%) 7.6 12.9 13.8 23.8 25.8 < 0.001
 Skin color, White (%) 79.1 74.0 68.6 57.6 60.0 < 0.001
 Parity ≥2 (%) 42.7 46.1 60.3 60.8 73.3 < 0.001
 Depression before pregnancy (%) 8.5 16.1 24.2 33.3 51.7 < 0.001
 Unplanned pregnancy (%) 36.1 41.7 50.5 54.76 66.7 < 0.001
 Prenatal consultations ≤6 (%) 7.3 8.9 13..5 17.6 21.9 < 0.001
 Worked during pregnancy (%) 35.3 40.1 53.2 54.1 59.2 < 0.001
 Smoking during pregnancy (%) 6.8 13.9 21.5 27.5 25.8 < 0.001
 Alcohol during pregnancy (%) 4.9 5.9 11.1 11.2 11.7 < 0.001
 Drugs during pregnancy (%) 0.3 0.9 2.7 3.4 2.5 < 0.001
 C-section (%) 70.6 67.1 63.9 60.5 55.8 < 0.001
 Self-rated health poor/very poor (%) 4.5 11.9 25.6 24.9 60.7 < 0.001
Child variables
 Sex, male (%) 51.5 49.3 54.0 51.4 48.3 0.580
 Low birthweight (%) 9.9 8.9 7.4 9.5 11.7 0.574
 APGAR 5′ ≤ 6(%) 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.3 1.7 0.302
 Intermediate or intensive care hospitalization after birth (%) 7.9 7.4 6.7 7.8 11.7 0.510
  1. X2 Test for all except a
  2. a ANOVA test