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Table 1 Mean (M), standard deviation (SD), and ANOVAs between the ADHD-P, ADHD-R, and N-ADHD groups on executive functions and ADHD associated behaviors

From: Empirical examination of executive functioning, ADHD associated behaviors, and functional impairments in adults with persistent ADHD, remittent ADHD, and without ADHD

 1.ADHD-P N = 402.ADHD-R N = 213.N-ADHD N = 54 Group Difference
M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)F(2,112)η2p
Executive Functions
 Inhibition15.85 (2.87)13.62 (2.88)11.72 (2.63)25.55**.311 > 3
 Shift10.85 (3.11)9.43 (5.59)8.56 (2.23)9.07**.131 > 3
 Working Memory15.20 (3.70)12.43 (2.97)10.69 (2.09)27.84**.331 > 2, 3
 Plan/Organize19.38 (4.99)17.24 (3.66)14.13 (2.99)21.10**.271 > 3; 2 > 3
ADHD Associated Behaviors
 Inattention/Memory16.93 (7.01)14.14 (8.78)6.36 (4.28)32.90**.371, 2 > 3
 Hyperactivity/Restlessness21.15 (5.80)14.81 (5.59)8.91 (4.83)60.82**.521 > 2, 3; 2 > 3
 Impulsivity/ E. Lability16.08 (6.84)9.76 (7.46)6.33 (5.16)28.17**.331 > 2, 3
 Self-concept problems6.63 (5.31)5.00 (3.97)3.78 (3.55)4.99*.081 > 3
  1. Bonferroni correction, p* < .05, p** < .01
  2. The higher scores on EF indicate greater EF impairments