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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The effect of yoga on sleep quality and insomnia in women with sleep problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors, year
country
Main characteristics of the studied populationSample characteristics
(sample size, age)
Intervention group
comparison group
Sleep outcome measuresOutcomes
Danhauer SC et al. 2009 [54]
America
Women (≥18 y) with breast cancer (any stage), 2–24 months post-primary treatment (surgery) following initial diagnosis and/or had a recurrence of breast cancer within the past 24 months44, G1 = 22, G2 = 22
Mean age:
G1 = 54.3 y/o (SD = 9.6), G2 = 57.2 y/o (SD = 10.2)
G1 = Restorative Yoga
G2 = Control group
(wait list control)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.97)
Chandwani KD et al. 2010 [55]
America
Women (≥18 y) with breast cancer (stage 0-stage III) who were scheduled to undergo radiotherapy at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center61, G1 = 30, G2 = 31
Mean age:
G1 = 51.39 y/o (SD = 7.97), G2 = 54.02 y/o (SD = 9.96)
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Control group
(wait list control)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G2 (P > 0.05)
Bower JE et al. 2012 [12]
America
Post-menopausal women (aged 40–60 y) diagnosed with Stage 0 – II breast cancer; completed local and/or adjuvant cancer therapy (with the exception of hormonal therapy) at least 6 months and experiencing persistent cancer-related fatigue31, G1 = 16, G2 = 15
Mean age:
G1 = 54.4 y/o (SD = 5.7), G2 = 53.3 y/o (SD = 4.9)
G1 = Iyengar Yoga
G2 = Control group
(health education)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G2 (P > 0.05)
Kiecolt-Glaser JK et al. 2014 [56]
America
Women (stage 0-IIIa breast cancer survivors in age from 27 to 76 y) had completed cancer treatment within the past 3 years (except for tamoxifen / aromatase inhibitors) and were at least 2 months post surgery or adjuvant therapy or radiation200, G1 = 100, G2 = 100
Mean age:
G1 = 51.8 y/o (SD = 9.8), G2 = 51.3y/o (SD = 8.7)
G1 = Hatha Yoga
G2 = Control group
(wait list control)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.03)
Ratcliff CG et al. 2016 [57]
America
Women (aged ≥18 y) with breast cancer (diagnosed with stage 0 to III) scheduled to undergo daily adjuvant XRT (radiotherapy treatment) for 6 weeks at MD Anderson Cancer Center163, G1 = 53, G2 = 56, G3 = 54
Mean age:
G1 = 52.38 y/o (SD = 1.35), G2 = 51.14 y/o (SD = 1.32), G3 = 52.11 y/o (SD = 1.34)
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Stretching
G3 = Control group (wait list control)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G3 (P > 0.05)
Taylor T R et al. 2018 [71]
America
Women (aged 18–65 y), no pregnant, breast cancer survivor of at least 12 months post-surgery and treatment (excluding hormone therapy), free of medical contraindications reported by their physician33, G1 = 18, G2 = 15
Mean age:
G1 = 54.9 y/o (SD = 8.8), G2 = 52.6 y/o (SD = 8.2)
G1 = Restorative yoga
G2 = Control group
(wait list control)
ISIThe total score of ISI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.89)
Chaoul A et al. 2018 [58]
America
Women (aged ≥18 y) with breast cancer stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM) I to III who were undergoing chemotherapy, were able to read, write and speak English; and were scheduled to undergo neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy (weekly or every 21 days) at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center227, G1 = 74, G2 = 68, G3 = 85
Mean age:
G1 = 49.5 y/o (SD = 9.80), G2 = 50.4 y/o (SD = 10.3),
G3 = 49.0 y/o (SD = 10.1)
G1 = Tibetan Yoga
G2 = Stretching group
G3 = Control group
(Usual care)
PSQI
Actigraphy
The total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding G1 vs. G3 (P = 0.32)
Actigraphy:
Statistically significant finding in sleep efficiency (SE) G1 vs. G3 (P = 0.02), wake after sleep onset (WASO) G1 vs. G3 (P = 0.0003), but no statistically signify finding on sleep onset latency (OL) G1 vs. G3 (P = 0.89), total sleep time (TST) G1 vs. G3 (P = 0.19)
Porter LS et al. 2019 [59]
America
Women (aged ≥18y) receiving treatment for metastatic breast cancer had a life expectancy ≥9 months as estimated by their treating oncologist; could speak and read English63, G1 = 43, G2 = 20
Mean age:
G1 = 56.3 y/o (SD = 11.6)
G2 = 59.4 y/o (SD = 11.3)
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Control group
(social support group)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G2 (P > 0.05)
Elavsky S et al. 2007 [60]
America
Sedentary or low-active middle-aged women (aged 42–58 y) during the menopausal transition who had no history of surgical menopause and had not used hormone therapy or at least 6 months. Baseline analyses revealed that overall sleep quality was poor in the sample (Mean PSQI = 6.21, SD = 3.46) with 88% of sample scoring163, G1 = 61, G2 = 63, G3 = 39
Age range:42–58 y/oMean age:49.9 y/o (SD:3.6)
G1 = Yoga
G2 = walking
G3 = Control group
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G3 (P > 0.05)
Afonso RF et al. 2012 [61]
Brazil
Postmenopausal women (aged 50–65 y) with insomnia diagnosed by specialist based on DSM4, amenorrhea for 1 year or longer, had follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ≥ 30 mIU/ml, and had a BMI (Body mass index) < 30 kg/m261, G1 = 16, G2 = 21, G3 = 24
Age range:50–65 y/o
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Passive stretching
G3 = Control group
ISI
Polysomnography
The total score of ISI improved:
G1 vs. G3 (P < 0.05)
Polysomnography:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G3 (P > 0.05)
Newton KM et al. 2014 [62]
America
Previous sedentary women (aged 40–62 y) in menopausal transition or postmenopausal or had hysterectomy with FSH ≥ 20 m IU/mL and estradiol ≤50 pg/mL, with ≥14 vasomotor symptoms /week in each of three consecutive weeks and had not used hormone therapy for past 1 month.249, G1 = 107, G2 = 142
Age range:40–62 y/o
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Control group
(usual activity)
PSQI
ISI
The total score of PSQI improved:
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.049)
The total score of ISI improved:
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.007)
Buchanan, D.T. et al. 2017 [63]
America
Women (aged 40–62 y) in menopausal transition or postmenopausal or had hysterectomy with FSH ≥ 20 mIU/mL and estradiol ≤50 pg/mL, generally in good health; experiencing 14 or more hot flashes/night sweats per week (on 2-w screening diaries); and hot flashes rated as bothersome or severe on four or more occasions/week186, G1 = 52, G2 = 54, G3 = 80
Mean age:
G1 = 55.3 y/o (SD = 3.9),
G2 = 55.6 y/o (SD = 3.5),
G3 = 54.2 y/o (SD = 3.7)
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Exercise
G3 = Control group
(usual activity)
ActigraphyStatistically no significant finding in sleep efficiency (SE) G1 vs. G3 (P > 0.05), wake after sleep onset (WASO) G1 vs. G3 (P > 0.05), sleep onset latency G1 vs. G3 (P > 0.05), total sleep time (TST) G1 vs. G3 (P > 0.05)
Ide MR et al. 2008 [64]
Brazil
Women with fibromyalgia syndrome (1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria) with time availability40, G1 = 20, G2 = 20
Mean age:
G1 = 46.61 y/o (SD = 9.80), G2 = 45.47 y/o (SD = 8.65)
G1 = Yoga breathing exercises in warm water
G2 = Control group
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.004)
Innes KE et al. 2012 [65]
America
Nonsmoking women (aged 45–79 y), post-menopausal (≥12 months amenorrheic) physical inactive (exercising less than 20 min, 3 times per week) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and/or waist circumference ≥ 88 cm) with restless legs syndrome20, G1 = 10, G2 = 10
Mean age:
G1 = 58.4 y/o (SD = 6.32), G2 = 58.9 y/o (SD = 9.10)
G1 = Iyengar Yoga
G2 = Control group (education film group)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.01)
Cheung C et al. 2014 [66]
America
Community-dwelling women (aged 65–90 y) had symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of knee diagnosis for at least 6 months without previous training in any form of yoga36, G1 = 18, G2 = 18
Mean age:
G1 = 71.9 y/o,
G2 = 71.9 y/o
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Control group
(wait list control)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G2 (P = 0.15)
Fang R et al. 2015 [67]
China
Female nurses (aged of 25–51 y) with normal communication abilities and willingness to participate study120, G1 = 61, G2 = 59
Mean age:
G1 = 35.13 y/o
(SD =10.98),
G2 = 36.05 y/o
(SD = 9.91)
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Control group
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
G1 vs. G2 (P < 0.001)
Ebrahimi M et al. 2017 [68]
Iran
Women (aged 38–53 y) with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus lack of any diabetic complications, no participation in any kind of regular aerobic exercise and resistance training over the last 6 months, BMI < 40 kg/m2, not being under insulin treatment45, G1 = 15, G2 = 15, G3 = 15
Mean age:
G1 = 48.18 y/o,
G2 = 44.69 y/o,
G3 = 47.93 y/o
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Aerobic exercise
G3 = Control group
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
G1 vs. G3 (P < 0.05)
Rao M et al. 2017 [69]
India
Female teachers, aged between 30 and 55 years were willing to participate in the study and had no previous exposure to any form of yoga practice.60, G1 = 30, G2 = 30
Mean age:
G1 = 43.0 y/o (SD = 9.77)
G2 = 40.0 y/o (SD = 7.32)
G1 = Yoga-based, mindfulness relaxation
G2 = Control group
(wait list control)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
G1 vs. G2 (P < 0.01)
Nalgirkar SP et al. 2018 [70]
India
Women (aged 20–50 y) and diagnosed for primary dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) with no underlying systemic pathology30, G1 = 15, G2 = 15
Mean age:
G1 = 29.85 y/o (SD =4.45)
G2 = 30.85 y/o (SD =4.42)
G1 = Yoga
G2 = Control group
(wait list control)
PSQIThe total score of PSQI improved:
No statistically significant finding
G1 vs. G2 (P > 0.05)
  1. BMI Body max index, DSM4 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria, DUB Dysfunctional uterine dysfunction, ECOG-PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone, G1 Group 1, G2 Group 2, G3 Group 3, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, OA Osteoarthritis, OL Onset latency, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, SE Sleep efficiency, TST Total sleep time, WASO Wake time after sleep onset, XRT Radiotherapy treatment