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Table 2 Characteristics of yoga programs and outcome assessment of studies included in the systematic review

From: The effect of yoga on sleep quality and insomnia in women with sleep problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors, year
country
Specific type of yogaYoga frequency (sessions/week)Session length
(mins/week)
Study duration
(weeks/ study)
Number of sessions/study
Total lengths (h)/study
Safety
(adverse events)
Basal score of PSQI (SD) and follow-upBasal score of ISI (SD) and follow-up
Elavsky s et al. 2007 [60]
America
Iyengar Yoga
(Hatha Yoga)
2901632 (24 h)Not reportedG1 = 6.9 0(3.94) G1 = 6.48 (4.22)
G3 = 5.46 (2.96) G3 = 5.44 (3.63)
Afonso RF et al. 2012 [61]
Brazil
Asanas Yoga21201632 (32 h)Not reportedG1 = 14.1 (5.87) G1 = 9.7 (4.64)
G3 = 15.2 (4.8) G3 = 13.7 (4.64)
Newton KM et al. 2014 [62]
America
Yoga program2901224 (18 h)ReportedG1 = 7.7 (3.34)
G1 = 5.6 (3.30)
G2 = 8.4 (3.30)
G2 = 5.8 (2.91)
G1 = 11.8 (5.25) G1 = 7.4 (5.07)
G2 = 12.2 (5.13) G2 = 6.8 (4.35)
Buchanan, D.T. et al. 2017 [63]
America
Viniyoga1901212 (18 h)Not reported
Danhauer SC et al. 2009 [54]
America
Restorative Yoga1751010 (12.5 h)Not reportedG1 = 8.3 (4.7)
G1 = 6.1 (4.3)
G2 = 8.6 (5.3) G2 = 7.0 (4.2)
Chandwani KD et al. 2010 [55]
America
Yoga2120612 (12 h)Not reportedG1 = 7.3 (3.83) G1 = 7.3 (4.67)
G2 = 7.1 (3.89) G2 = 7.1 (5.38)
Bower JE et al. 2012 [12]
America
Iyengar Yoga2901224 (36 h)Not reportedG1 = 9.2 (3.3)
G1 = 8.1 (2.5)
G2 = 9.1 (3.5)
G2 = 7.7 (2.6)
Kiecolt-Glaser KJ et al. 2014 [56]
America
Hatha Yoga21801224 (36 h)ReportedG1 = −
G1 = 7.0 (2.15)
G2 = −
G2 = 6.3 (2.18)
Cheung C et al. 2014 [66]
America
Hatha Yoga16088 (8 h)Not reportedG1 = 6.5 (4.2)
G1 = 5.0 (2.2)
G2 = 5.4 (2.8)
G2 = 6.1 (2.2)
Ratcliff CG et al. 2016 [57]
America
Yoga program3180618 (18 h)Not reportedG1 = 8.3 (3.9)
G1 = 6.7 (3.1)
G3 = 8.2 (3.7)
G3 = 7.3 (3.7)
Taylor TR et al. 2018 [71]
America
Restorative Yoga17588 (10 h)Not reportedG1 = 10.18 (8.74)
G1 = 7.89 (7.17)
G2 = 7.56 (6.82) G2 = 6.20 (7.11)
Chaoul A et al. 2018 [58]
America
Tibetan Yoga4300–36014 (5–6 h)Not reportedG1 = 7.8 (3.7)
G1 = 7.3 (3.6)
G3 = 8.1 (4.2)
G3 = 8.1 (4.4)
Porter LS et al. 2019 [59]
America
Mindful Yoga112088 (16 h)Not reportedG1 = 8.6 (3.34) G1 = 8.6 (3.01)
G2 = 7.6 (2.73) G2 = 7.6 (3.42)
Ide MR et al. 2008 [64]
Brazil
Yoga breathing exercises in warm water4240416 (16 h)Not reportedG1 = 13.17 (4.00) G1 = 9.95 (1.15)
G2 = 11.82 (5.05)
G2 = 13.88 (1.28)
Innes K E et al. 2012 [65]
America
Iyengar yoga2180816 (24 h)Not reportedG1 = 8.71 (3.63) G1 = 3.57 (1.49)
G2 = 9.25 (3.32) G2 = 8.00 (2.94)
Fang R et al. 2015 [67]
China
Yoga> 2> 100–12024> 48 (40–48 h)Not reportedG1 = 9.98 (1.89) G1 = 7.61 (1.25)
G2 = 10.24 (2.35)
G2 = 10.31 (2.42)
Ebrahimi M et al. 2017 [68]
Iran
Yoga program32701236 (54 h)Not reportedG1 = 14.40 (5.92) G1 = 3.73 (3.49)
G3 = 13.91 (5.52) G3 = 13.27 (5.58)
Rao, M et al. 2017 [69]
India
Yoga-based, mindfulness relaxation5150420 (10 h)Not reportedG1 = 5.63 (3.31) G1 = 3.10 (1.26)
G2 = 4.86 (2.52) G2 = 5.9 (1.93)
Nalgirkar SP et al. 2018 [70]
India
Yoga program31801236 (h)Not reportedG1 = 15.16 (8.29) G1 = 12.75 (4.73)
G2 = 9.91 (4.69) G2 = 10.08 (3.75)