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Table 3 Mean effect sizes and moderator analyses of yoga in women with sleep problems

From: The effect of yoga on sleep quality and insomnia in women with sleep problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis

ParameterResultsEffect Size
(Hedges’g)
95%CIP
Categorical Moderators
Outcome measurement tool
  PSQI16- 0.369−0.559, − 0.1780.002*
  Others30.031− 0.265, 0.328 
Participant
  Breast cancer group8−0.148−0.304, 0.0090.001*
  Non-breast cancer group11−0.522−0.821,-0.224 
Participant
  Peri/postmenopausal6−0.084−0.269, 0.1020.003*
  Others13−0.419−0.647,-0.191 
Study region
  American13−0.123−0.240,-0.006< 0.001*
  Others6−0.844−1.114,-0.573 
Random sequence generation
  High/ unclear risk3−0.578−1.272, 0.1160.001*
  Low risk16−0.292−0.473,-0.111 
Continuous Moderators
Sample size19 0.000,0.0030.032*
Total length of class time19 −0.021,-0.0040.003*
Study duration19 −0.03,0.0870.20
Mean age17 0.008,0.0350.003*
  1. *P value <0.05 indicated a significant difference