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Table 1 Characteristics of assays and main findings of included delirium studies*

From: A systematic review of the overlap of fluid biomarkers in delirium and advanced cancer-related syndromes

Author and yearParticipantsEndpointsBiomarkers studiedBiological materialAssay methodCovariates accounted for in multivariate analysisResults
Total (N)SampleTotal participants with cancer/total participants in the studyNumber of delirium with cancer/total number delirium (%)Positive association with at least one delirium endpoint **Negative association
Egberts et al. (2017) [24]86Aged ≥65 admitted to geriatricsNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCRP, NLRBloodFlow cytometryAge, gender, the CCI score, CRP level, and WBC countsNLRCRP
Kozak et al. (2017) [25]60Patients with acute ischemic strokeNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceTNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18, BDNF, NSESerumELISANo multivariate analysisNoneTNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18, BDNF, NSE
Tomasi et al. (2017) [26]38Patients with sepsis-associated delirium and non-sepsis associated deliriumaNot measured/NR Not measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceIL-6, IL-8, IL-10, BDNF, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, MPO, cathepsin, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB/BB, RANTES, PAI, NCAMPlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisIL-6, IL-10, RANTES, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, PDGF-AB/BBIL-8, MPO, BDNF, NCAM, PDGF-AA, PAI, Cathepsin D
Vasunilashorn et al. (2017) [27]560Patients ≥70 undergoing major non-cardiac surgeryaNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium incidence
-Delirium duration
-Delirium severity
CRPPlasmaELISAAge, sex, surgical
procedure, anesthesia route, CCI and POST-OP infectious complications
CRPNone
Chu et al. (2016) [28]103Patients aged ≥70 admitted for acute or elective vertebral, knee, or hip surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIGF-1SerumELISAMMSE and ageNoneIGF-1
Dillon et al. (2016) [28]Entire sample (n-566); pooled sample (n=150)Dementia-free adults ≥70 years old undergoing major scheduled non-cardiac surgeryaAdvanced cancer excluded; other cancer stages NRAdvanced cancer excluded; other cancer stages NRDelirium incidenceProteomicsbPlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisCRP (PRE-OP, PACU, POD2)CRP (PO1MO)
Guo et al. (2016) [29]572Aged ≥65 with hip fractures undergoing THAaNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium presence
-Delirium prevalence
CRP, Alb, HbBloodNRNRCRP, Alb, HbNone
Karlicic et al. (2016) [30]120Patients with delirium in the psychiatric ICUNoneCancer excludedLethal outcomeCRPNRNRAge, pneumonia and CRPCRPNone
Neerland et al. (2016) [31]149Patients with acute hip fractureAdvanced cancer excluded, other cancer stages NRAdvanced cancer excluded, other cancer stages NRDelirium presenceCRP, IL-6, sIL-6RCSFELISANo multivariate analysisCRPbsIL-6R, IL-6
Shenet al.(2016) [32]140Patients ≥65 undergoing elective gastrointestinal tumor resectiona140/140 (100)36/36 (100)-Delirium incidence
-Delirium severity
IGF-1, CRP, IL-6SerumELISANRIGF-1, CRP, IL-6None
Sunet al.(2016) [33]112Oral cancer patientsa112/112 (100)56/56 (100)Delirium incidenceIL-6, CRP, PCT, cortisol, AB1-40BloodELISANo multivariate analysisIL-6, CRP, PCT, cortisol, AB1-40None
Yen et al. (2016) [34]98Patients undergoing elective knee replacement surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIGF-1SerumELISAObstructive sleep apnea, IGF-1 and diabetesNoneIGF-1
Avila-Funeset al.(2015) [35]141Patients aged ≥70 admitted to tertiary care hospital37/141 (26.2)6/23 (26)Delirium incidenceCortisol, E2BloodRadioimmunoassayAge, BMI, comorbidity, MMSE, previous history of delirium, BUN/Cr ratio, and cortisol levelsE2Cortisol
Brumet al.(2015) [36]70Oncology inpatientsa45-70 (64.2)17/17 (100)Delirium presenceBDNF, TNF-αSerumELISA + Flow cytometryNo multivariate analysisNoneBDNF, TNF-α
Egberts et al. (2015) [37]86Patients admitted to Internal Medicine and GeriatricsaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceNP, IL-6, IGF-1PlasmaHPLCAge, gender and the CCI, and those including NP were adjusted for age, gender, CCI, tertiles of eGFR and CRPNP, IL-6, IGF-1None
Foroughanet al. (2015) [38]200Elderly patients admitted to general hospital18/200 (9)12/44 (27)Delirium presenceCRP, HbBloodNRNRCRP, HbNone
Skrede et al. (2015) [39]10Patients with hip fractureNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceMCP-1SerumELISANo multivariate analysisMCP-1None
Vasunilashorn et al. (2015) [40]566Patients ≥70 undergoing major non-cardiac surgeryaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIL-1Β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, TNF-α, VEGFPlasmaLuminex assayNo multivariate analysisIL-1Β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, VEGF, IL-5, TNF-αGM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4
Alexander et al. (2014) [41]77ICU patients requiring mechanical ventilationNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium presence
-Delirium duration
IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, APOESerumELISAAge, sex, APACHE III, CCI, 24-hour propofol
dose, 24-hour narcotic dose, and 24-hour benzodiazepine
dose.
APOEIL-10, IL-8, IL-6
Baranyi et al. (2014) [42]34Patients undergoing surgery for CPBaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidencesIL-2RSerumELISANo multivariate analysissIL-2RNone
Cape et al. (2014) [43]43Patients >60 years old with hip fractureNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium incidence
-Delirium prevalence
IL-1β, IFN-γ, GFAP, IGF-1, IL-1RACSFELISAPresence of prior dementiaIL-1β, IL-1RAcGFAP, IFN-γ, IGF-1
Capri et al. (2014) [44]351Patients admitted for any kind of emergency or elective surgeryaComorbidity measured, cancer NRComorbidity measured, cancer NRDelirium presenceIL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-αPlasmaELISAAge, comorbidity, ADL, IADL, HADS and pre-op benzodiazepines intakeIL-6, IL-2IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β (UDL), TNF-α (UDL)
Chen et al. (2014) [45]372Patients aged ≥65 who underwent surgery for a femoral neck fracture or an intertrochanteric fractureaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceLPPlasmaELISAAge, ASA, type of surgery and plasma leptin levelLPNone
Hatta et al. (2014) [46]29Patients aged 65-89 admitted to hospital due to an emergencyNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceNK cell activity, IL-1βBloodELISANo multivariate analysisNK cell activityIL-1β
Kazmierski et al. (2014) [47]113ICU patients scheduled for CABG surgery with CPBNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCortisol, IL-2, TNF-α, HCY, cobalaminSerumCLIANRCortisol, IL-2, TNF-α, HCYCobalamin
Ritchie et al. (2014) [48]710Patients admitted to a Medical Acute Admission UnitNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium incidence
-Delirium severity
CRPNRNRNRCRPNone
Ritter et al. (2014) [49]78ICU patientsNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceTNF-α, STNFR-1, STNFR2, APN, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10PlasmaELISASedation and sepsisSTNFR-1, STNFR2, IL-1βTNF-α, IL-6, IL-10
Zhang et al. (2014) [50]223ICU patientsNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCRPPlasmai-CHROMATMAge, sex, APACHE II, intubation status, living alone, physical restraint, alcohol drinking, smoking, type of medical condition, and hospital LOS before ICU admissionCRPNone
Cerejeira et al. (2013) [51]101Patients ≥60 years without dementia undergoing elective hip arthroplastyaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCortisol, IGF-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10PlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisCortisolCRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IGF-1
Colkesen et al. (2013) [52]52Patients with ACS admitted to coronary ICUaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCortisol, troponin I, MB-CKSerumCLIANRCortisolTroponin I, MB-CK
Kazmierski et al. (2013) a [53]113ICU patients scheduled for CABG surgery with CPBNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCortisol, IL-2PlasmaCLIANRCortisold, IL-2None
Kazmierski et al. (2013) b [54]113ICU patients scheduled for CABG surgery with CPBNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIL-2, TNF-αPlasmaCLIANRIl-2, TNF-αNone
Liu et al. (2013) [55]338Patients aged ≥60 undergoing major non-cardiac surgeryaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIL-6BloodELISAAge, education, history of coronary artery disease, alcoholism, PRE-OP ASA ≥ 3, PRE-OP NYHA ≥ 2, PRE-OP MMSE score ≤ 24, PRE-OP serum IL-6 ≥ 7.5 ph/ml, POST-OP serum IL-6, POST-OP VAS pain levelIL-6None
Plaschke et al. (2013) [56]1141. Patients following heart surgerya
2. Patients on the non-cardiac ICUa
Not measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIL-6PlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisNoneIL-6
Skrobik et al. (2013) [57]99ICU patientsaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDrug-induced coma and deliriumTNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, MIP-1B, MCP-1BloodBCAFentanyl, midazolam, CYP3A4/5, P-gp inhibitorsIL-6TNF-α, IL-17, IL-8, MCP-1, IL-1RA, MIP-1B, IL-10, IL-1β
Westhoff et al. (2013) [58]61Patients ≥75 admitted for surgical repair of acute hip fractureaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceEGF, eotaxin, FGF-2, Flt-3L, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM- CSF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL-1RA, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, sIL-2Ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB/BB, RANTES, sCD40L, TGF-α, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGFBlood + CSFLumbar punctures and Luminex assaysNo multivariate analysisFlt-3L, IL-1RA, IL-6EGF, eotaxin, FGF-2, Fractalkine, G-CSF, GM- CSF, IFN-a2, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, sIL-2Ra, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MDC, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB/BB, RANTES, sCD40L, TGF-α, TNF-α, TNF-β, VEGF
Bakker et al. (2012) [59]201Patients undergoing cardiac surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCrePlasmaNRNRCreNone
Baranyi et al. (2012) [60]34Patients undergoing surgery for cardiopulmonary bypassaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceAlb, CRPSerumNRNo multivariate analysisAlbCRP
Cerejeira et al. (2012) [61]101Patients aged ≥60 undergoing elective total hip arthroplastyaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, CRP, AChE, BuChEBloodELISA (Multiplex assay)No multivariate analysisAChE, BuCHECRP, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10
Girard et al. (2012) [62]138Mechanically ventilated ICU patientsaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCRP, MMP-9, MPO, NGAL, sTNFR1, D-dimer, protein C, PAI-1, VWFPlasmaELISAAge, severity of illness, and severe sepsisMMP-9, Protein C, sTNF-R1CRP, MPO, NGAL, D-dimer, PAI-1, VWF
Osse et al. (2012) [63]125Patients ≥70 undergoing elective cardiac surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceNP, BH4, HVA, Glu, Ser, Gly, Cit, Tau, Arg, Met, Try, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Ile, Val, Try:LNAA, Tyr:LNAA, Phe:LNAA, Phe:tyr, Cit:arg, Tau:Ser 9 metPlasmaHPLCBH4, total biopterin, HVA, ratios of Trp:LNAA, tyr: LNAA, phe: LNAA, phe: Tyr, Cit:Arg, TSM ratio; baseline CRP, plasma urea, cre, age, sex, type of surgery, acute cardiac surgical risk factors, EuroSCORE, MMSE, pre-op anxiety and depression,
and chronic medical comorbidity
NP, HVABH4, Glu, Ser, Gly, Cit, Tau, Arg, Met, Try, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Ile, Val, Try:LNAA, Tyr:LNAA, Phe:LNAA, Phe:tyr, Cit:arg, Tau:Ser 9 met
Bisschop et al. (2011) [64]143Patients undergoing surgery for hip fractureNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium presence
-Delirium severity
Cortisol, insulin, glucoseBloodNRSex, age, pre-existing cognitive impairment, pre-existing functional impairment, cortisol, glucose, insulin, insulin:glucoseCortisolGlucose, insulin
Holmes et al. (2011) [65]222Patients with mild to severe ADNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Presence of sickness behaviour
-Delirium incidence
IL-6, TNF-α, CRPBloodELISABaseline ADAS score, age, gender, and the presence of deliriumNoneIl-6, TNF-α, CRP
Lee et al. (2011) [66]65Patients ≥65 who had undergone hip surgeryaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCRPBloodNRNo multivariate analysisNoneCRP
McGrane et al. (2011) [67]87Mechanically ventilated, medical and surgical ICU patientsaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium/coma-free daysPCT, CRPBloodTRACE Assay analysisAge, APACHE II,
sedation group (dexmedetomidine vs. lorazepam), and sepsis
PCTCRP
Morandi et al. (2011) [68]110eMechanically ventilated medical ICU patientsNot measured/NRNRDelirium presenceIGF-1BloodRadioimmunoassayAge, severe sepsis and APACHE II IGF-1
Van der Boogaard et al. (2011) a [69]100ICU patientsaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceTNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-18, MIF, IL-1RA, IL-10, MCP-1, HNP-1, CRP, PCT, Ab1-42, Ab1-40, S100B, cortisolPlasmaLuminex assay, immunologic detection, and an immunometric assayNRDelirium vs non-delirium: IL-8f, IL-10g, Ratio Aβ1-42/40, TNF-α, IL-6, MIF, IL-1RA, MCP-1, PCT, cortisol, ABN-42
Inflamed delirium vs non-inflamed delirium: IL-8, TNF-α, IL-18, IL-1RA, MCP-1, PCT, CRP, ratio Aβ1-40/N-40, ratio AβN-42/40,
Delirium vs non-delirium: IL-1Β, IL-17, IL-18, HNP, CRP, S100B, Tau, Ratio Tau/Aβ1-42, Aβ1-42, Aβ1-40, AβN-42, AβN-40, Ratio AβN-42/40, Ratio Aβ1-42/N-42, Ratio Aβ1-40/N-40
Inflamed delirium vs non-inflamed delirium: IL-1β, IL-6, MIF, IL-10, cortisol, ABN-42, IL-1Β, IL-17, HNP, S100B, Tau, tau/AB1-42, Ratio Tau/Aβ1-42, Aβ1-42, Ratio Aβ1-42/N-42Aβ1-40, Ratio Aβ1-42/40, AβN-42, AβN-40
Van der Boogaard et al. (2011) b [70]20ICU patientsNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceProteomicshUrine + BloodNRNo multivariate analysis CRP, Cre
Burkhart et al. (2010) [71]113Patients aged ≥65 undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPBNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCRPNRNREuroSCORE, Leucocytes, CRP max, Fentanyl intraoperatively, duration of mechanical ventilation, packed RBC, and treated PONVCRPNone
Mu et al. (2010) [72]243Patients undergoing elective CABG surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCortisolSerumCLIAAge, history of diabetes mellitus, PRE-OP LVEF, PRE-OP NYHA, preop EuroSCORE score, duration of surgery, POST-OP APACHE II, serum cortisol, POST-OP LVEF, POST-OP complications (within 1 day)CortisolNone
Pearson et al. (2010) [73]20Patients ≥60 with acute hip fracture awaiting surgeryaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCortisolCSF + serumELISANo multivariate analysisCortisolNone
Plaschke et al. (2010) [74]114iPatients undergoing elective CABGaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCortisol, IL-6PlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisIL-6, cortisolNone
Tsruta et al. (2010) [75]103ICU patientsaNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium incidence
-Delirium prevalence
CRPSerumImmunoturbidimetryAge, APACHE II, coexistence of infection, use of a mechanical
ventilator and length of ICU stay
CRPNone
Van Munster et al. (2010) [76]120Patients ≥65 admitted for hip fracture surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCortisol, IL-6, IL-8, S100BPlasmaCBAAge, infection, pre-existent cognitive and functional impairmentCortisol, IL-6, IL-8, S100BNone
Adamis et al. (2009) [77]67Patients aged ≥70 admitted to elderly care unitNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium incidence
-Delirium severity
APOE, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, TNF-α, IGF-1, IFN-γ, LIFSerumELISANo Multivariate analysisIGF-1, IFN-γ, IL-1RA,APOE, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, LIF
Van Munster et al. (2009) [78]120Patients ≥65 admitted for hip fracture surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceS100B, NSEBloodECLIANo multivariate analysisS100BNSE
Lemstra et al. (2008) [79]68Patients undergoing surgery for hip fractureNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCRP, IL-6, IGF-1BloodELISANo multivariate analysisNoneCRP, IL-6, IGF-1
Pfister et al. (2008) [80]16jPatients with sepsisNot measured/NRNot measured/NRSepsis-related delirium presenceCRP, IL-6, S-100B, cortisolSerumSolid-phase
enzyme-labelled chemiluminescent sequential immunometric
assay
No multivariate analysisCRP, S100B, CortisolIL-6
Rudolph et al. (2008) [81]42Patients undergoing cardiac surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IFN-a, TNF-α, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-7, IL-12p40_p70, IL-15, IFN-γ, IP-10, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, MIP-1a, MIP-1b, MIG, Eotaxin, RANTES, CCL-2, IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-17, DR5SerumELISANo multivariate analysisMIP-1a, MIP-1b, MIG, Eotaxin, RANTES, CCL-2IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IFN-a, TNF-α, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, IL-2, IL-2R, IL-7, IL-12p40_p70, IL-15, IFN-γ, IP-10, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-17, DR5
Van Munster et al. (2008) [82]98Patients ≥65 admitted for hip fracture surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceIL-6, IL-8, IL-12
(TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 excluded from analysis)
PlasmaCBANo multivariate analysisIl-6, IL-8IL-12
Adamis et al. (2007) [83]164Acutely ill patients admitted to elderly care unitNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium presence
-Delirium resolution
APOE, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, TNF-α, IGF-1, IFN-γ, LIF, CRPSerumELISALogAPACHE II, DRS, CRP, Gender, TNF-α, IFN-g, IGF-I, IL-1RA, and possession of APOE epsilon 4 alleleIGF-1, APOE, IFNγIL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, TNF-α, LIF, CRP
de Rooijet al.(2007) [84]185Patients aged ≥65 admitted to the Department of Medicine18/185 (9.7)9/64 (14)Delirium presenceIL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, CRPSerumCBAAge, cognitive impairment, and infectionIL-6, IL-8IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, CRP
Plaschke et al. (2007) [85]37ICU patientsNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceSAA, IL-6BloodELISANo multivariate analysis for IL-6NoneSAA, IL-6
White et al. (2005) [86]283Patients ≥75 from emergency medical admissionsNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Delirium prevalence
-Delirium incidence
CRP, Alb, AChE, BuChE, Aspirin esterase, BenzoylcholinesterasePlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisCRP, Alb, AChE, BuChE, Aspirin esterase, BenzoylcholinesteraseNone
Wilson et al. (2005) [87]100Patients ≥75 suffering from significant physical illnessNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceIGF-1PlasmaCLIADepression, IGF-1 levels and IQCODE scoresIGF-1None
Beloosesky et al. (2004) [88]32Patients undergoing surgery for hip fractureNot measured/NRNot measured/NR-Cognition
-Post-operative complications (including delirium)
-Post-operative function
-Mortality
CRP, FBGBloodNephelometric assayUnclearCRPFBG
Robertsson et al. (2001) [89]172Patients <80 referred to the neuropsychiatric diagnostic unit with suspected dementiaNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCortisolSerumNRAge, severity of dementia and severity of deliriumCortisolNone
Van der Mast et al. (2000) [90]296kPatients admitted for elective cardiac surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceTry, Ile, Val, Met, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Ser, cortisolPlasmaHPLCPlasma amino acids; the ratios of Trp/oLNAA, Tyr/oLNAA, and Phe/oLNAA; albumin; cortisol; and thyroid functions.Trp, Trp:LNAACortisol, Ile, Val, Met, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Ser
Van der Mast et al. (1999) [91]296Patients admitted for elective cardiac surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceAlb, cortisol, 5-HT, try, phe, val, leu, Ile, try:tyr:phePlasmaHPLCAge, inclusion as an in-patient, use of nifedipine, MMSE score, GHQ score, DAL score, Albumin, ratio rT3:T3; ratio Phe:oLNAAAlb, phe: Ile, Phe:Leu, Phe:val, Phe:tyr, Phe:tryCortisol, 5-HT
Gustafson et al. (1993) [92]155Stroke patientsNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium presenceCortisolPlasmaRadioimmunoassayIntercept, basal plasma cortisol, paresis, age, left-sided brain lesion, sex, anticholinergic medication, post-dexamethasone plasma cortisolCortisolNone
McIntosh et al. (1985) [93]7Male patients admitted to hospital for elective surgeryNot measured/NRNot measured/NRDelirium incidenceCortisol, B-endorphinPlasmaRadioimmunoassayNo multivariate analysisCortisol, B-endorphinNone
  1. * Studies with both delirium and cancer participants are bolded; red coloured biomarkers indicate significance in multivariate analysis
  2. a Dementia was an exclusion criteria
  3. b Only CRP is reported from this study
  4. c Only between incident and prevalent delirium
  5. d Pre-operative and post-operative cortisol remained significantly increased in delirium, however, after controlling for pre-operative depression, only preoperative cortisol concentration remained significant, irrespective of the cortisol level after surgery.
  6. e Only 66 included in the primary analysis
  7. f In inflamed patients only
  8. g In non-inflamed patients only
  9. hOnly CRP and Cre are reported
  10. i Same cohort as Plaschke et al. 2007
  11. j Only 16 were analysed
  12. k same cohort as Van Der Mast et al. 1999
  13. Abbreviations: 5HIAA 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HT Serotonin, 6-SMT 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 8-Iso PGF2a 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, A1A Alpha-1 antitrypsin, a-1-AGP a-1-acid glycoprotein, AA Anticholinergic activity, AB1 Amyloid-B, AChE Acetylcholinesterase, ACS Acute Coronary Syndromesm, ADAS Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale, ADL Activities of daily living, Ala Alanine, Alb Albumin, AD Alzheimer’s Disease, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, APN Adiponectin, ANG Angiopoietin, APOA1 Apolipoprotein A1, APOE: Apolipoprotein E, Arg Arginine, APS Acute Physiology Score, ASA American Society of American Society of Anaesteologists Scale, BCA The bicinchoninic acid assay, BDNF Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, BH4 Tetrahydrobiopterin, BLI B-Endorphin-Like Immunoreactivity, BuChE Butyrylcholinesterase, C3 Complement C3, CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, CBA Cytometric bead array immunoassay, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, Cit Citrulline, CK Creatine Kinase, CK-MB Creatine Kinase-MB, CLIA Chemiluminescence immunoassay, CNTN-1 Contactin-1, CPB Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Cre Creatinine, CRP C-Reactive Protein, E2 Estrodiol, FBG Fibrinogen, FBLN-1 Fibulin-1, ECLIA Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, EGF Epidermal Growth Factor, FGF-2 Fibroblast Grown Factor, Flt-3L FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, GABA Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, G-CSF Granulocyte Stimulating Factor, GFAP Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GHQ General Health Questionnaire, Glu Glutamic acid, Gly Glycine, GM-CSF Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Hb Haemoglobin, HCY Homocysteine, HNP-1 Defensin, HP Haptoglobin, HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography, HVA Homovanillic Acid, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living, ICU Intensive care unit, Ile Isoleycine, ICAM-1 Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1, IDO Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, IFN Interferon, IGF Insulin- Like Growth Factor, IL Interleukin, IL-1RA Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist, Ile Isoleucine, IP-10 Interferon gamma-induced protein 10, IQCODE The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, KYN Kynurenine, Leu Leucine, LIF Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor, LNAA Large Neutral Amino Acids, LOS Length of stay, LP Leptin, Met Methionine, MB-CK MB-isoform of Creatinine Kinase, MCP Monocyte Chemotactic Protein, MDC Human Macrophage-derived Chemokine, MIF Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, MIG Monokine induced by Gamma Interferon, MIP Macrophage Inflammatory Protein, MMP-9 Matrix Metalloproteinase- 9, MMSE Mini-mental state examination, MPO Myeloperoxidase, MT Melatonin, NCAM Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule, NGAL Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin, NLR Neutrophil- Lymphocyte ratio, NK cells Natural killer cells, NP Neopterin, NR Not reported, NSE Neuron Specific Enolase, Orn Ornithine, NYHA New York Heart Association, PACU Post-anesthesia care unit, PAI-1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PCT Procalcitonin, PDGF Platelet- Derived Growth Factor, Phe Phenylalanine, pMHPG Plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, pNF-H The Phosphorylated Neurofilament H, PO1MO 1 month post-operative, POD2 Post-operative day 2, PONV Post-operative nausea and vomiting, POST-OP Post-operative, PRE-OP Pre-operative, P-tau Phosphorylated tau, RANTES Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, RBC Red blood cell, S100B s100 calcium-binding protein B, sCD40L Soluble CD40 ligand, Ser Serine, sIL-XR Soluble IL- X receptor, SLI Somatostatin-Like Immunoreactivity, sTNFR Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor, Tau Taurine, T-tau Total tau, TGF-a Transforming Growth Factor Alpha, THA Total Hip Arthroplasty, TRACE Time Resolved Amplified Cryptate Emission, TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, TNF Tumor Necrosis Factor, Trp Tryptophan, TRX Thioredoxin, Tyr Tyrosine, UDL Under detection limit, Val Valine, VCAM-1 Vascular Cell Adhesion protein 1, VEGF Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, vWF Von Willebrand factor, ZAG Zinc-a-2-Glycoprotein