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Table 2 Characteristics of assays and main findings of included cancer studies*

From: A systematic review of the overlap of fluid biomarkers in delirium and advanced cancer-related syndromes

Author and yearParticipantsEndpointsBiomarkers studiedBiological materialAssay methodCovariates adjusted for in multivariate analysisResults
Total participants (N)Cases; controlPositive association with at least one endpoint**Negative association
Amano et al. (2017)a [94]1702Advanced cancer patients; no control-Anorexia
-Weight loss
-Fatigue
-Dyspnea
-Dysphasia
-Edema
-Pressure ulcer
-ADL disabilities
CRPNRNRAge, gender, primary
tumor site, distant metastasis, chemotherapy,
ECOG PS, and setting of care
CRPNone
Demiray et al. (2017) [95]87Participants with advanced cancer; healthy participants without a known chronic disease-Cachexia
-Weight loss
-PFS
-OS
LP, resistinSerumELISANRLP
Multivariate results NR
Resistin*
Multivariate results NR
Fogelman et al. (2017) [96]69Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls with no cancer diagnosisEither 10% weight loss or death at 60 days from the start of therapyAPN, bFGF, CXCL-16, FSN, Ghrelin, IGF-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, Klotho, LP, MCP-4, MK, MSTN, PIF, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, TARC, TNF-α, VEGF, ZAGNRNRSmoking status, best response, pain, difficulty swallowingMK, IL-1β, CXCL- 16, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α
Multivariate results NR
APN, bFGF, FSN, Ghrelin, IGF-1, Klotho, LP, MCP-4, MSTN, MK, PIF, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, TARC, VEGF, ZAG
Multivariate results NR
Luo et al. (2017) [97]217Participants with advanced cancer; no control-PFS
-OS
FBG, CA-125, NLR, PLRSerum + PlasmaNRNRFBGCA-125, NLR, PLR
Paulsen et al. (2017) [98]49Participants with cancer; no control-Pain
-Appetite
-Fatigue
CRP, ESR, sTNF-R1, IL-1RA, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-18, MIF, TGF-β1SerumELISA (multiplex assay)Sex, BMI and agesTNF-r1, MCP-1, MIF, CRP, IL-6, IL-1RAIL-18, TGF-β 1, ESR
Amano et al. (2016) [99]1511Advanced cancer patients; no control-Survival rate
-Mortality rate
CRPPlasmaLatex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assayAge, gender, primary tumor site, distant metastasis, chemotherapy, ECOG PS, and setting of careCRPNone
Bye et al. (2016) [100]60Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls with normal weight-Cachexia
-Survival
IL-10, IFN-γ, LP, APN, TNF-α, IL-6, IGF-1SerumELISANo multivariate analysisIL-6IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, APN, IGF-1
Mitsunga et al. (2016) [101]421Participants with advanced cancer with low, intermediate and high CRP levelsOSCRP, NLRBloodELISA (Multiplex assay)Retrospective cohort: Sex, age, ECOG-PS, UICC stage, CA 19-9, prognostic CRP classification; Prospective cohort: Sex, age, ECOG-PS, UICC stage, CA 19-9, NLR classification, mGPS, prognostic CRP classificationCRP, NLRNone
Morgado et al. (2016) [102]49Participants with advanced cancer and fatigue with and without weight loss-Weight loss
-Fatigue
Hb, LDH, Alb, CRP, CreSerum + UrineNRNo multivariate analysisAlb, CRPHb, LDH, Cre
Rodrigues et al. (2016) [103]51Participants with advanced cancer; no controlFatigueIL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, α-1-AGP, GPS (Alb+CRP)BloodNRNo multivariate analysisTNF-α, GPS (Alb+CRP)None
Srdic et al. (2016) [104]100Participants with advanced cancer with and without cachexia-Cachexia
-Chemotherapy toxicity
-Survival
CRP, IL-6, Alb, HbNRThe Bromocresol Purple methodNRCRP, IL-6, Alb, HbNone
Wu et al. (2016) [105]55Participants with advanced cancer; no control-OS
-PFS
NLR, PLR, ALP, LDHBloodNRNRPLR, NLR, LDHALP
Bilir et al. (2015) [106]80Participants with advanced cancer and cachexia; healthy controls with no known chronic disease or weight loss-OS
-Cachexia
Il-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, orexin-A, galanin, TWEAK, TRAF-6, NPY, CRP, Testosterone, Alb, LDHSerumELISANRCRP, TRAF-6, Alb, LDH, IL-1a, IL-6, TNF-α, TWEAK, orexin-A, NPY, testosteroneIL-1β, galanin
Miura et al. (2015) [107]79Participants with advanced cancer; no control-Body composition
-Fatigue
IL-6SerumELISA (multiplex assay)NRIL-6None
Miura et al. (2015) b [108]1160Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSurvivalmGPS (Alb+CRP)NRNRPrimary tumor site, age and gendermGPS (Alb+CRP)None
Barrera et al. (2014) [109]135Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls-Quality of life (fatigue, PS, hyporexia, BMI)
-Survival
IL-31, IL-33, IL-27, IL-29, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF- α, IL-4, IL-10PlasmaCBANo multivariate analysisIL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-33, IL-10, IL-29b, IL-12p70b, IL17abIL-31, IL-27, IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-4
Blakely et al. (2014) [110]50Participants with advanced cancer with normal CRP and elevated CRP-OS
-Mortality rate
-gastrointestinal obstruction
-Pain
-Bleeding
-Other symptoms (NR)
-Major complications
CRPSerumNRNRCRPNone
Fujiwara et al. (2014) [111]21Participants with advanced cancer with and without cachexiaCachexiaLP, IL-6, TNF-αSerumELISANo multivariate analysis LP, IL-6, TNF-α
Lindemann et al. (2014) [112]218Participants with advanced cancer; no control-Survival
-Weight loss
CRP, AlbPlasmaImmune-turbidimetryNo multivariate analysisCRP, AlbNone
Mondello et al. (2014) [113]170Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls-Surviva
-Cachexia
LP, ghrelin, obestatinSerumELISAAge, ghrelin, obestatin, leptin, metastatic
disease and chronic kidney disease
LP, Ghrelin, obestatinNone
Moriwaki et al. (2014) [114]62Patients with advanced cancer with GPS 0, GPS 1 or GPS 2OSGPS (Alb+CRP), ALP, LDH, Bilirubin, CEA, CA 19-9NRNRGPS, median ALP, median LDH, number of metastatic organs, liver metastasis, peritoneal metastasis, other metastasisGPS (Alb+CRP)ALP, Bilirubin, LDH, CEA, CA 19-9
Szkandera et al. (2014) [115]474Participants with cancer; no controlCancer-specific survivalCRP, NLR, PLRPlasmaNRAge, gender, tumour grade, tumour stage,
administration of chemotherapy, surgical resection, NLR, PLR,
bilirubin levels and plasma CRP levels
CRP, NLRPLR
Zhang et al. (2014) [116]200Participants with cancer; no control-Fatigue
-Chemotherapy adverse effects
TNF-α, IL-1 α, IL-1 β, 17-HCSPlasma + urineELISANo multivariate analysisTNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β17-HCS
Jafri et al. (2013) [117]173Participants with advanced cancer with high inflammation and with low inflammation-PFS
-OS
ALI (Alb+NLR)SerumNRSex, race, PS and histologyALI (Alb+NLR)None
Laird et al. (2013) [118]1466Participants with advanced cancer with low and high CRP levels-Symptoms of the EOTC (pain, appetite loss, cognitive function, dyspnea, fatigue, physical function, role function, social function, QoL, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, sleep, constipation)
-Survival
CRPBloodNRNo multivariate analysisCRPNone
Laird et al. (2013) b [119]2456Participants with advanced cancer; no control-Symptoms of the EOTC (pain, appetite loss, cognitive function, dyspnea, fatigue, physical function, role function, social function, QoL, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, sleep, constipation)
-Survival
mGPS (Alb+CRP)BloodNRNRmGPS (Alb+CRP)None
Paiva et al. (2013) [120]223Participants with cancer with and without fatigue-Fatigue
-OS
CRP, Hb, LDH, AlbBloodNRAge, KPS, type of treatment, breast cancer, upper gastrointestinal cancer, head and neck cancer, lower gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, urologic cancer, and CRPCRP, Hb, LDH, Alb, WBCNone
Suh et al. (2013) [121]98Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSurvivalIL-6, TNF-αPlasmaELISA (multiplex assay)Gender (male), fatigue (BFI-K score), ECOG (3-4), IL-6 (high, ≥9.06 pg/mL)IL-6TNF-α
De Raaf et al. (2012) [122]92Participants with advanced cancer; cancer survivorsPhysical and mental fatigueCRP, IL-1-RA, NP, IL-6 and IL-8PlasmaCBANo multivariate analysisCRP, IL-6, IL-1-ra, NPIL-8
Gioulbasanis et al. (2012) [123]114Participants with advanced cancer with malnutrition, with a risk of malnutrition, and who were well nourished-Nutritional status (cachexia)
-Survival
IL-8PlasmaCLIAPS, histology, BMI, gender, age, smoking status, weight loss historyIL-8None
Gulen et al. (2012) [124]88Participants with advanced cancer with and without weight loss; age- and sex-matched controlsWeight loss (>5%)LP, APN, TNF-α, CRPSerumELISANo multivariate analysisLPAPN, TNF-α, CRP
Heitzer et al. (2012) [125]65Advanced cancer patients with cancer pain; healthy controls without painPain intensityIL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, TNF-β, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-7, IL-13, IL-18, MCP-1, MIP-1a, MIP-1B, OPGSerumELISANIUnclearUnclear
Minton et al. (2012) [126]720Participants with advanced cancer with and without fatigueFatigueCRP, Alb, HbBloodNRHb, current treatment with chemo, QOL score, depression, pain dyspnoea, cognitive function, insomnia and loss of appetiteCRP, Alb, HbNone
Partridge et al. (2012) [127]102Patients with advanced cancer with GPS 0, GPS 1 or GPS 2 ; no controlSurvivalmGPS (Alb+CRP)BloodNRSex, primary cancer site, age, Hb and WBCmGPS (Alb+CRP)None
Pond et al. (2012) [128]220Participants with advanced cancer; no control-OS
-PFS
CRPNRNRNRCRPNone
Wang et al. (2012) [129]177Participants with cancer; no controlSurvivalCRP, Alb, mGPS (Alb+CRP), NLRNRNRPS, pretherapeutic weight, WBC, neutrophil count, NLR, CRP, mGPS, PI, the 7th TNM staging, surgery, degree of differentiation, palliate chemotherapyCRP, mGPS (Alb+CRP), NLRAlb
Aydin et al. (2011) [130]61Advanced cancer patients; no controlSurvivalCRP, Alb, TFNSerumNephelometric assayNo multivariate analysisCRP, Alb, TFNNone
Dev et al. (2011) [131]77Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSymptom distress (pain, fatigue, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, appetite, well-being, dyspnea, sleep)CortisolSerumNRNRCortisolNone
Gioulbasanis et al. (2011) [132]115Participants with advanced cancer with malnutrition, with a risk of malnutrition, and who were well nourished-Nutritional status (cachexia)
-Survival
Alb, CRP, ghrelin, LP, APN, IGF-1PlasmaRadioimmunoassayNumber of metastatic sites, PS, weight loss <5%, MNA groups, age, and major histological typeCRP, LP, AlbGhrelin, APN, IGF-1
Hwang et al. (2011) [133]402Participants with cancer; no control-PFS
-OS
Alb, CRPSerumLatex turbidimetric immunoassayPeritoneal metastasis, bone metastasis, albumin, CRP, ECOG PS, GPSAlb, CRPNone
Kwak et al. (2011) [134]90Participants with advanced cancer; no controlFatigueIL-6, TNF-αBloodNRBFI score, age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, cancer site, previous treatment, comorbidity, medication, pain score, sleep disorder, dyspnea,
ECOG PS, WBC, Hb, BUN, creatinine, albumin, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α
NoneIL-6, TNF-α
Lee et al. (2011) [135]126Participants with advanced cancer; no control14 day mortalityCRPSerumNRCRP, chemotherapy, age, dyspnea, altered mental status, hypotension, and leukocytosisCRPNone
Scheede-Bergdahl et al. (2011) [136]83Participants with advanced cancer; no control- Clinical features of cachexia (weakness, loss of appetite, fatigue, QOL, weight loss)
-Survival
IL- 6, IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-αPlasmaBCASex, age, diagnosis, oncological treatment, CCI and medicationsIL- 6, IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-αNone
Vlachostergios et al. (2011) [137]77Participants with advanced cancer; no control-TTP
-OS
IGF-1, CRP, AlbSerumRadioimmunoassaySex, current smoker, albumin, IGF-1IGF-1, CRP, AlbNone
Diakowska et al. (2010) [138]218Participants with cancer with and without cachexia; healthy blood donors; and patients with non-malignant diseases of alimentary tractCachexiaLP, CRP, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, Alb, Hb.SerumELISANRLP, IL-6, Alb, TNF-αIL-1, IL-8, Hb, CRP*
Meek et al. (2010) [139]56Participants with advanced cancer; no controlCancer-specific survivalIGF-1, IGFBP-3, CRP, mGPS (Alb+CRP), LPSerumNRBMI, cancer stage, Hb, WBC, mGPSmGPS (Alb+CRP)IGF-1, IGFBP-3, LP, CRP
Ishizuka et al. (2009) [140]112Participants with advanced cancer; no controlMortalityCRP, Alb, mGPS (Alb+CRP), Neutrophil ratioSerumNRNeutrophil ratio, CA 19–9, CRP, albumin, and mGPSmGPS (Alb+CRP)None
Karapanagiotou et al. (2009) [141]161Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls-Weight loss
-TTP
-OS
Ghrelin, LPSerumELISASex, age, BMI, GhrelinGhrelin
Multivariate results NR
LP
Multivariate results NR
Paddison et al. (2009) [142]44Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controlsFatigueHb, WBC, Neutrophil, Monocyte,LymphocyteBloodNRAge, gender, time until treatment termination; and fatigueHb, WBC, Neutrophil count, monocyte countNone
Takahashi et al. (2009) [143]26Participants with cancer cachexia; healthy controlsAnorexia (cachexia and BMI)TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1RA, LP, ghrelinPlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisTNF-α, IL-6, IL-1RA, LPIFN- γ, ghrelin
Inagaki et al. (2008) [144]46Participants with advanced cancer with and without fatigueFatigueIL-6PlasmaELISALogistic regression: IL-6, gender, weight and clinical fatigue
Multiple regression: gender, weight, IL-6 and total score of the CFS
IL-6None
Karapanagiotou et al. (2008) [145]152Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls-Weight loss
-TTP
-OS
LP, APN, resistinSerumELISASex, age, BMI, resistinResistinLP, APN
Sharma et al. (2008) [146]52Participants with advanced cancer; no control-OS
-Toxicity
IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Y, TNF-α, sIL-6R, sgp130, VEGF, eotaxin, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, Alb, CRP, GPS (Alb+CRP)SerumNRTumour site (colonic primary), GPS, CEA, and albuminGPS (Alb+CRP), Hb, AlbCRP, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Y, TNF-α, sIL-6R, sgp130, VEGF, eotaxin, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β
Weryńska et al. (2008) [147]40Participants with advanced cancer with and without cachexia-Cachexia
-Nutritional status
LPSerumELISANo multivariate analysisLPNone
Ravasco et al. (2007) [148]101Participants with cancer; no control-REE
-Weight loss
-Nutritional intake
IL-1RA, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, VEGFSerumELISACancer histology and stage, nutritional intakeIL-1RA, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-y, VEGFIL-10
Richey et al. (2007) [149]24Participants with cancer with and without cachexiaCachexiaGPS (Alb+CRP), Alb, IL-1a, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ, VEGF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1a, MIP-1B, RANTES, FGF, Hb, CRP, CEASerumDry-slide method with the VITROS Fusion Series analyserNo multivariate analysisGPS (Alb+CRP), Alb, CEAIL-1a, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-y, VEGF, GM-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1a, MIP-1B, RANTES, FGF, Hb, CRP, CEA
Suh et al. (2007) [150]44Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSurvivalCRPSerumNRNRCRPNone
Al Murri et al. (2006) [151]96Breast cancer patients; no controlSurvivalCRP, Alb, GPS (Alb+CRP)NRNRGPS and treatmentCRP, GPS (Alb + CRP)None
Kayacan et al. (2006) [152]56Participants with advanced cancer with and without cachexia; healthy smokers for the control-Cachexia
-PS
-Survival
TNF-α, IL-6SerumELISANRNoneTNF-α, IL-6
Ramsey et al. (2006) [153]119Participants with advanced cancer; no control-Cancer-specific survival
-Cancer-specific mortality
GPS (Alb+CRP)NRNRGPS, Hb, calcium, WBC, neutrophil count, Alb, CRPGPS (Alb+CRP)None
Di Nisio et al. (2005) [154]141Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSurvivalIL-6, IL-10, IFN-y, P-selectinPlasmaBCALife expectancy, WHO performance status, concomitant treatment, type of carcinoma, and histologyIL-10, IL-6, P-selectinIFN-y
Rich et al. (2005) [155]80Participants with advanced cancer with good and dampened circadian rhythms-Extent of metastatic disease
-PS
-QOL
IL-6, TGF-a, TNF-α, cortisolSerumELISANRIL-6, TGF-a, TNF-αCortisol
Bolukbas et al. (2004) [156]69Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls with stable weightWeight lossLPSerumELISANRLPNone
De Vita et al. (2004) [157]68Participants with advanced cancer; no control-TTP
-OS
IL-6SerumELISANRIl-6None
Dulger et al. (2004) [158]54Participants with advanced cancer with and without cachexia; healthy gender- and age- matched adultsCachexiaTNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, LP, GH, TG, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, total protein, ESRSerumSolid-phase, two-site chemiluminescent immunometric
assays
No multivariate analysisAlb, total protein, GH, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, insulin, LP, ESRb, CRPbGlucose, TG
Elahi et al. (2004) [159]165Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSurvivalAlb, CRPNRFluorescence polarization immunoassayNRAlb, CRPNone
Jamieson et al. (2004) [160]33Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controlsWeight lossHb, Alb, CRP, APN, LP, IL-6SerumELISANo multivariate analysisHb, Alb, CRP, APN, LP, IL-6None
Songur et al. (2004) [161]91Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls-Malnutrition
-Survival
IL-6, Alb, CRP, TFN, LDHSerumNRNRIL-6, Alb, CRP, TFN, LDHNone
Scott et al. (2003) [162]106Participants with advanced cancer with and without weight loss-Weight lossHb, Alb, CRPBloodNRNo multivariate analysisHb, Alb, CRPNone
Aleman et al. (2002) [163]106Patients newly diagnosed with NSCL vs patients with no cancer-Nutritional status
-Survival
IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, IL-2, LP, α -1A, ferritin, CRP, TNF-α, s-TNFR2, s-IL-2R, IFN-γSerumCLIANRIL-6, IL-12, IL-2, sTNFR2, IFN-γ, sIL-2R, LP, α-1A, CRP, ferritin
Multivariate results unclear
IL-10, TNF-α
Multivariate results unclear
Orditura et al. (2002) [164]85Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls-OS
-TTF
IL-8, IL-10, IL-2SerumELISANRIL-10, IL-2, IL-8None
Scott et al. (2002) [165]106Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSurvivalAlb, CRPBloodNRAge, sex, stage, histological type, weight loss, haemoglobin, albumin, CRP, KPS and EORTCV QLQ-C30 subscaleCRP, AlbNone
Jatoi et al. (2001) [166]73Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controlsAnorexia and/or weight lossNPY, LP, CCK-8SerumRadioimmunoassayNo multivariate analysisNPYLP, CCK-8
Mantovani et al. (2001) [167]58Participants with advanced cancer; normal weight healthy controls-BMI
-Cachexia
-ECOG PS
-Survival
LP, IL-6, TNF-αSerumELISANo multivariate analysisUnclearUnclear
Mantovani et al. (2000) [168]32Participants with advanced cancer; normal weight healthy controls-cachectic symptoms (BMI)LP, IL-1a, IL-6, and TNF-αSerumELISANo multivariate analysisUnclearUnclear
Nenova et al. (2000) [169]87Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controls-Cachexia
-Prognosis
TNF-αSerumELISANo multivariate analysisUnclearUnclear
O'Gorman et al. (1999) [170]50Participants with advanced cancer with weight loss or weight gain; weight stable controls-Weight loss
-Appetite
-PS
-Inflammation
Alb, CRPBloodNRNo multivariate analysisAlb, CRPNone
Okada et al. (1998) [171]100Participants with cancer; healthy controlsWeight lossIL-6SerumELISANo multivariate analysisIL-6None
Wallace et al. (1998) [172]54Participants with advanced cancer; healthy controlsWeight lossLPSerumRadioimmunoassayNo multivariate analysisLPNone
Maltoni et al. (1997) [173]530Participants with advanced cancer; no controlSurvivalNeutrophil, lymphocyte & monocyte %, basophil + eosinophil %, Hb, TFN, Alb, total WBC, Pseudocholinesterase, proteinuria, TFN, transport ironBloodNRNo multivariate analysisNeutrophil %, lymphocyte %, total WBC, CHE, Albbasophil + eosinophil %, Hb, TFN
Simons et al. (1997) [174]21Participants with cancer and weight loss; no control-Weight loss
-Body composition
-Appetite
-REE
LPPlasmaELISANo multivariate analysisLPNone
  1. Note: Cancer prognosis was not separated from the other syndromes in the table
  2. * Red coloured biomarkers indicate significance in multivariate analysis
  3. aSecondary analysis of Amano, 2016
  4. bIn cancer vs no cancer only
  5. Abbreviations: 17-HCS 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, α-1-AGP a-1-acid glycoprotein, α-1A alpha-1 antitrypsin, Alb Albumin, ALP Alkaline phosphatase, APN Adiponectin, APOA2 Apolipoprotein A2, BCA The bicinchoninic acid assay, bFGF Basic fibroblast growth factor, CA 19-9 Cancer antigen, CBA Cytometric bead array immunoassay, CCK Cholecystokinin, CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen, CK Creatine Kinase, CLIA Chemiluminescence immunoassay, Cre Creatinine, CRP C-Reactive Protein, CXCL Soluble CXC chemokine ligand, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, FBG Fibrinogen, FSN Follistatin, GH Growth Hormone, GM-CSF Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, HA Hyaluronic Acid, Hb Haemoglobin, IGF Insulin-Like Growth Factor, IGFBP Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein, IL Interleukin, IFN Interferon, LDH Lactate Dehydrogenase, LP Leptin, MCP Monocyte Chemotactic Protein, MIP Macrophage Inflammatory Protein, MK Midkine, NI Not enough information, NR Not reported, MSTN Myostatin, NLR Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, NP Neopterin, NPY Neuropeptide Y, OPG Osteoprotegrin, PLR Platelet-lymphocyte ratio, RANTES Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, sTNFR SolubleTumor Necrosis Factor Receptor, Sgp130 Soluble glycoprotein 130, TARC Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine, TFN Transferrin, TG Triglyceride, TNF Tumor Necrosis Factor, TRAF-6 Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor associated factor-6, TTF Time to treatment failure, TWEAK TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis, VEGF Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, ZAG Zn-alpha2 glycoprotein