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Table 2 Prevalence Estimates of Self-harm (by year and country of publication)

From: Self-harm with suicidal and non-suicidal intent in young people in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Author
(year)
Country
TermSetting
(sample)
Prevalence estimate   Study
quality
Lifetime12-month6-month1-month
Flisher et al.
(1993) [34].
South Africa.
Attempted suicideSchool
(7340)
OV = 572/7340 (7.8%)2/5
Kebede & Ketsela
(1993) [35].
Ethiopia.
Attempted suicideSchool
(519)
OV = 74/519 (14.3%)
F = 32/232 (13.8%)
M = 42/287 (14.6%)
5/5
Peltzer et al.
(2000) [36].
South Africa.
Attempted suicideSchool
(366)
OV = 46/366 (12.6%)3/5
Madu & Matla
(2003) [37].
South Africa.
Attempted suicideSchool
(435)
OV = 91/435 (21%)
F = 43/243 (18%)
M = 48/192 (25%)
4/5
Wild et al.
(2004) [38].
South Africa.
Suicidal attemptSchool
(939)
OV = 95/939 (10%)
F = 69/519 (13.3%)
M = 26/420 (6.2%)
4/5
Sommer
(2005) [39].
Cross-national
(South Africa
& Germany)
Suicidal behaviourSchool
(299)
OV = 48/299 (16.1%)
F = 38/185 (20.5%)
M = 10/114 (8.8%)
2/5
Flisher et al.
(2006) [40].
South Africa.
Suicidal attemptSchool
(10669)
OV = 9.1%
F = 691/6066 (11.4%)
M = 313/4603 (6.8%)
3/5
Shiferaw et al.
(2006) [41].
Ethiopia.
Suicidal attemptSchool
(667)
OV = 44/667 (6.6%)OV = 39/667 (5.8%)
F = 11/155 (7.1%)
M = 28/512 (5.5%)
2/5
Omigbodun et al.
(2008) [20].
Nigeria.
Attempted suicideSchool
(1429)
OV = 167/1429 (11.7%)
F = 87/702 (12.4%)
M = 80/727 (11%)
4/5
Peltzer
(2008) [42].
South Africa
Suicide attemptSchool
(1157)
OV = 278/1157 (24%)4/5
Mashego & Madu (2009) [43].
South Africa.
Suicidal behaviourSchool
(142)
OV = 21/142 (14.8%)
F = 14/86 (16.3%)
M = 7/56 (12.5%)
4/5
Kinyanda et al.
(2011) [28].
Uganda.
Self-injury
&
Suicide attempt
Community
(897)
Self-injury:
13/897 (1.4%)
Suicide attempt:
15/897 (1.7%)
5/5
Nanewortor
(2011) [44].
Ghana
Attempted suicideSchool
(383)
OV = 31/383 (8.1%)4/5
Campbell
(2012) [45].
South Africa
Attempted suicideSchool
(1033)
OV = 129/1033 (12.5%)
F = 100/552 (18.1%)
M = 26/437 (5.9%)
3/5
Swahn et al.
(2012) [30].
Uganda.
Suicidal attemptCommunity
(457)
OV = 90/457 (19.8%)
F = 67/313 (21.4%)
M = 23/144 (16.2%)
4/5
van Niekerk et al.
(2012) [46].
South Africa.
Suicidal attemptUniversity
(810)
OV = 47/810 (5.8%)3/5
Vawda
(2012) [47].
South Africa
Suicide attemptSchool
(219)
OV = 12/219 (5.5%)3/5
Gage
(2013) [25].
Ethiopia
Suicide attemptCommunity
(2709)
OV = 62/2709 (2.3%)4/5
Muula et al.
(2013) [48].
Zambia.
Self-inflicted serious injurySchool
(2136)
OV = 254/2136 (11.9%)5/5
Shilubane et al.
(2013) [49].
South Africa.
Suicidal attemptSchool:
2002 SAYRBS (10549)
2008 SAYRBS
(10097)
2002 SAYRBS:
OV = 18.5%
F = 19.5%
M = 17.3%
2008 SAYRBS:
OV = 21.8%
F = 22.7%
M = 20.8%
5/5
van Rooyen
(2013) [50].
South Africa
Deliberate self-harmUniversity
(603)
OV = 291/603 (48.3%)OV = 223/6033 (7.0%)3/5
Cheng et al.
(2014) [33].
Cross-national (Nigeria, South Africa, China, India, USA).
Suicidal attemptCommunity:
Nigeria
(449)
South Africa
(496)
Nigeria:
OV = 73/449 (16.3%)
F = 33/229 (14.3%)
M = 40/220 (18.3%)
South Africa:
OV = 54/496 (10.9%)
F = 22/224 (10%)
M = 32/272 (11.8%)
4/5
Chinawa et al.
(2014) [51].
Nigeria.
Attempted suicideSchool
(764)
OV = 96/764 (12.5%)2/5
Lippi
(2014) [52].
South Africa.
Deliberate self-harmUniversity
(603)
OV = 278/603 (46.1%)
F = 219/483 (45.3%)
M = 59/120 (49.2%)
OV = 216/603 (35.8%)3/5
Penning & Collings
(2014) [53].
South Africa.
Self-injurySchool
(716)
OV = 20/716 (2.8%)5/5
Randall et al.
(2014) [54].
Benin.
Attempted suicideSchool
(2690)
OV = 761/2690 (28.3%)5/5
Shilubane et al.
(2014) [55].
South Africa.
Suicide attemptSchool
(591)
OV = 134/591 (22.7%)
F = 52/297 (18.2%)
M = 77/294 (27%)
4/5
Cluver et al.
(2015) [56].
South Africa
Suicide attemptCommunity
(3401)
OV = 111/3401 (3.3%)
F = 79/1926 (4.4%)
M = 32/1475 (2.2%)
4/5
Ng et al.
(2015) [57].
Rwanda
Suicidal behaviourCommunity
(237)
OV = 30/237 (12.6%)5/5
Giru
(2016) [58].
Ethiopia
Suicide attemptSchool
(722)
OV = 90/722 (12.5%)
F = 47/336 (14%)
M = 43/386 (11.1%)
OV = 14/722 (1.9%)
F = 10/336 (3%)
M = 4/386 (1%)
3/5
Shaikh et al.
(2016) [59].
Malawi.
Suicide attemptSchool
(2225)
OV = 287/2225 (12.9%)
F = 157/1188 (13.2%)
M = 130/1037 (12.4%)
5/5
van der Walt
(2016) [60].
South Africa
Self-harmUniversity
(201)
OV = 39/201 (19.4%)3/5
Akanni et al.
(2017) [61].
Nigeria
Attempted suicideSchool
(300)
OV = 17/300 (5.7%)
F = 8/135 (5.9%)
M = 9/165 (5.5%)
2/5
Asante et al.
(2017) [62].
Ghana
Suicide attemptSchool
(1973)
OV = 438/1973 (22.2%)
F = 213/908 (23.5%)
M = 225/1065 (21.1%)
5/5
Asante & Meyer-Weitz
(2017) [31].
Ghana.
Suicidal attemptCommunity (227)OV = 60/227 (26.4%)
F = 36/105 (37.5%)
M = 24/122 (20.3%)
4/5
James et al.
(2017) [63].
South Africa.
Suicidal attemptSchool
(10997)
OV = 17.8%4/5
Nyandindi
(2017) [64].
Tanzania
Suicide attemptSchool
(3793)
OV = 436/3793 (11.5%)
F = 230/1931 (11.9%)
M = 192/1862 (10.3%)
5/5
Peltzer & Pengpid
(2017) [65].
Namibia
Suicide attemptSchool
(4531)
OV = 1029/4531 (22.7%)
F = 604/2406 (27.4%)
M = 577/2125 (24.5%)
4/5
Stansfeld et al.
(2017) [66].
South Africa
Suicide attemptSchool
(1034)
OV = 139/1034 (13.4%)4/5
Amare et al.
(2018) [67].
Ethiopia
Suicide attemptSchool
(573)
OV = 93/573 (16.2%)
F = 44/296 (14.8%)
M = 49/277 (17.7%)
OV = 18/573 (3.1%)5/5
Khuzwayo et al.
(2018) [68].
South Africa
Suicide attemptSchool
(1687)
OV = 256/1687 (15.2%)
F = 196/854 (22.9%)
M = 60/833 (7.2%)
3/5
Liu et al.
(2018) [69].
Cross-national (Benin, Ghana, Malawi,
Mauritania, Namibia, &
eSwatini).
Suicide attemptSchool:
Benin
(2649)
Ghana
(3543)
Malawi
(2212)
Mauritania
(1976)
Namibia
(4410)
eSwatini
(3612)
Benin:
OV = 747/2649 (28.2%)
F = 260/927 (28%)
M = 486/1722 (28.2%)
Ghana:
OV = 935/3543 (26.4%)
F = 449/1637 (27.4%)
M = 486/1906 (25.5%)
Malawi:
OV = 246/2212 (11.1%)
F = 128/1175 (10.7%)
M = 118/1037 (11.4%)
Mauritania:
OV = 334/1976 (16.9%)
F = 173/1045 (16.6%)
M = 160/931 (17.2%)
Namibia:
OV = 1129/4410 (25.6%)
F = 565/2329 (24.2%)
M = 564/2081 (27.1%)
eSwatini:
OV =585/3612 (16.2%)
F = 305/1896 (16.1%)
M = 280/1716 (16.3%)
5/5
van der Wal & George
(2018) [70].
South Africa.
Self-harmSchool
(962)
OV = 167/962 (17.4%)
F = 109/557 (19.4%)
M = 58/405 (14.5%)
3/5
Baiden et al.
(2019) [71].
Ghana
Suicide attemptSchool
(1633)
OV = 349/1633 (21.1%)
F = 187/807 (23.2%)
M = 162/826 (19.6%)
5/5
Brittain et al.
(2019) [72].
South Africa
Self-harm
&
Attempted suicide
Community (110)Self-harm:
3/110 (3%)
Attempted suicide:
1/110 (0.9%)
4/5
Darré et al.
(2019) [73].
Togo
Suicide attemptSchool
(941)
OV = 46/941 (4.9%)
F = 31/753 (3.3%)
M = 15/188 (1.6%)
3/5
Koyanagi, Oh et al.
(2019) [74].
Cross-national (Benin, Ghana, Malawi,
Mauritania, Mozambique,
Namibia, Seychelles,
Swaziland, & Tanzania).
Suicide attemptSchool:
Benin
(1170)
Ghana
(1110)
Malawi
(2224)
Mauritania
(1285)
Mozambique
(668)
Namibia
(1936)
Seychelles
(2061)
Swaziland
(1318)
Tanzania
(2615)
Benin:
OV = 337/1170 (28.8%)
F = 104/397 (26.4%)
M = 233/773 (30.1%)
Ghana:
OV = 295/1110 (26.6%)
F = 154/565 (27.5%)
M = 141/545 (25.9%)
Malawi:
OV = 249/2224 (11.2%)
F = 115/1079 (10.7%)
M = 128/1145 (11.2%)
Mauritania:
OV = 227/1285 (17.7%)
F = 98/601 (16.3%)
M = 126/684 (18.4%)
Mozambique:
OV = 112/668 (16.8%)
F = 56/337 (16.7%)
M = 57/331 (17.1%)
5/5
Koyanagi, Oh et al.
(2019) [74].
Suicide attempt Namibia:
OV = 507/1936 (26.2%)
F = 260/1106 (23.5%)
M = 247/830 (29.7%)
Seychelles:
OV = 435/2061 (21.1%)
F = 215/1041 (20.7%)
M = 220/1020 (21.6%)
Swaziland:
OV = 202/1318 (15.3%)
F = 121/803 (15.1%)
M = 78/515 (15.2%)
Tanzania:
OV = 290/2615 (11.1%)
F = 159/1391 (11.4%)
M = 126/1224 (10.3%)
5/5
Koyanagi, Stubbs et al.
(2019) [75].
Cross-national (including
Benin, Ghana, Mauritania,
Mozambique, Namibia,
Seychelles, Swaziland, & Tanzania).
Suicide attemptSchool:
Benin (2690)
Ghana
(1684)
Mauritania
(2063)
Mozambique
(1918)
Namibia
(4531)
Seychelles
(2540)
Swaziland
(3680)
Tanzania
(3793)
Benin:
761/2690 (28.3%)
Ghana:
485/1684 (28.8%)
Mauritania:
359/2063 (17.4%)
Mozambique:
363/1918 (18.9%)
Namibia:
1178/4531 (26.0%)
Seychelles:
511/2540 (20.1%)
Swaziland:
607/3680 (16.5%)
Tanzania:
436/3793 (11.5%)
5/5
Nguyen et al.
(2019) [76].
Cross-national (Nigeria, Uganda, & Zambia).
Self-injuryHouseholds:
Nigeria
(4203)
Uganda
(5804)
Zambia
(1819)
Nigeria:
123/4203 (2.9%)
Uganda:
244/5804 (4.2%)
Zambia:
104/1819 (5.7%)
5/5
Quarshie et al.
(2019) [77].
Ghana
Suicide attemptCollege
(305)
OV = 7/305 (2.3%)
F = 6/277 (2.3%)
M = 1/28 (3.6%)
5/5
Shayo & Lawala
(2019) [78].
Tanzania
Suicide attemptSchool
(3793)
OV = 422/3793 (11.1%)
F = 230/1974 (11.7%)
M = 192/1819 (10.6%)
5/5
Thornton et al.
(2019) [79].
Cross-national (South Africa & Guyana)
Suicide attemptHouseholds:
South Africa
(175)
South Africa:
14/175 (7.4%)
2/5
Tolulope et al.
(2019) [80].
Nigeria.
Suicide attemptSchool
(1015)
OV = 30/1015 (3%)4/5
Uddin et al.
(2019) [81].
Cross-national (Benin, Ghana, Malawi,
Mauritania, Mozambique,
Namibia, Swaziland, &
Tanzania).
Suicide attemptSchool:
Benin
(2579)
Ghana
(2195)
Malawi
(2191)
Mauritania
(1867)
Mozambique
(1248)
Benin:
OV = 720/2579 (27.9%)
F = 254/902 (28.2%)
M = 466/1667 (28%)
Ghana:
OV = 607/2195 (27.7%)
F = 304/1029 (29.5%)
M = 294/1146 (25.7%)
Malawi:
OV = 251/2191 (11.5%)
F = 125/1142 (11%)
M = 118/1015 (11.6%)
5/5
Uddin et al.
(2019) [81].
Suicide attemptNamibia
(3235)
Swaziland
(2547)
Tanzania
(2911)
Mauritania:
OV = 322/1867 (17.3%)
F = 161/983 (16.4%)
M = 153/866 (17.7%)
Mozambique:
OV = 213/1248 (17.1%)
F = 113/596 (19%)
M = 95/633 (15%)
Namibia:
OV = 836/3235 (25.8%)
F = 432/1795 (24.1%)
M = 390/1409 (27.7%)
Swaziland:
OV = 439/2547 (17.2%)
F = 245/1432 (17.1%)
M = 190/1108 (17.2%)
Tanzania:
OV = 298/2911 (10.2%)
F = 161/1448 (10.9%)
M = 126/1403 (9%)
5/5
Vancampfort et al.
(2019) [82].
Cross-national (Benin, Ghana, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, & Tanzania)
Suicide attemptSchool:
Benin
(1170)
Ghana
(1110)
Mauritania
(1285)
Mozambique
(668)
Namibia
(1936)
Benin:
323/1170 (27.6%)
Ghana:
295/1110 (26.6%)
Mauritania:
213/1285 (16.6%)
Mozambique:
114/668 (16.5%)
Namibia:
492/1936 (25.4%)
5/5
Vancampfort et al.
(2019) [82].
Suicide attemptSeychelles
(2061)
Tanzania
(2615)
Seychelles:
423/2061 (20.5%)
Tanzania:
282/2615 (10.8%)
5/5
  1. OV Overall estimate
  2. F Female
  3. M Male
  4. SAYRBS South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey
  5. Gage’s (2013) [25] reported prevalence period was 3 months. Van Rooyen’s (2013) [50] reported prevalence period was 11 months