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Table 3 Predominant Form / Method of Self-harm by year of publication

From: Self-harm with suicidal and non-suicidal intent in young people in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Author
(year)
Country
SettingSample
(Sex)
Reported method of self-harmStudy
quality
Self-PoisoningSelf-Injury
Cummins & Allwood
(1984) [83]
South Africa
General
hospital
N = 81
(F = 54, M = 27)
▪ Overdose = 64/81 (79%)
F = 46/54 (85.2%)
M = 18/27 (66.7%)
3/5
Schlebusch
(1985) [84]
South Africa
General
hospital
N = 159
(F = 115, M = 44)
▪ Overdose, 151/159 (95%)
F = 112/115 (97.4%)
M = 39/44 (88.6%)
▪ Wrist/arm cutting = 8/159 (5%)
F = 5/115 (4.3%)
M = 3/44 (6.8%)
4/5
Pillay
(1987) [85]
South Africa
General
hospital
N = 55
(F = 42, M = 13)
▪ Overdose = 55/55 (100%)3/5
Pillay
(1988) [86]
South Africa
General
hospital
N = 87
(F = 68, M = 19)
▪ Self-poisoning = 81/87 (93.1%)
F = 67/68 (98.5%)
M = 14/19 (73.7%)
▪ Carbon monoxide = 1/87 (1.1%)
F = 0/68
M = 1/19 (5.3%)
▪ Wrist cutting = 1/87 (1.1%)
F = 1/68 (1.5%)
M = 0/19
▪ Hanging = 2/87 (2.3%)
F = 0/68
M = 2/19 (10.5%)
▪ Stabbing = 1/87 (1.1%)
F = 0/68
M = 1/19 (5.3%)
▪ Jumping from height = 1/87 (1.1%)
F = 0/68
M = 1/19 (5.3%)
3/5
Pillay & Wassenaar
(1991) [87]
South Africa
General
hospital
N = 40
(F = 26, M = 14)
Ingestion of:
▪ Medicines = 38/40 (95%)
▪ Pesticides = 2/40 (5%)
3/5
Mhlongo & Peltzer
(1999) [88]
South Africa
General
hospital
N = 100
(F = 63, M = 37)
▪ Paraffin = 36/100 (36%)
▪ Methylated spirit = 12/100 (12%)
▪ Shampoo = 11/100 (11%)
▪ Pesticides = 10/100 (10%)
▪ Detergent = 9/100 (9%)
▪ Battery acid = 6/100 (6%)
▪ Medicaments = 3/100 (3%)
▪ Ingestion of glass = 4/100 (4%)
Hanging = 9/100 (9%)3/5
Madu & Matla
(2003) [37]
South Africa
SchoolN = 435
(F = 243, M = 192)
▪ Self-poisoning = 40/435 (9.2%)
F = 21/243 (8.6%)
M = 19/192 (9.9%)
▪ Drug overdose = 23/435 (5.3%)
F = 13/243 (5.3%)
M = 10/192 (5.2)
▪ Hanging = 20/435 (4.6%)
F = 5/243 (2.1%)
M = 15/192 (7.8%)
▪ Stabbing = 2/435 (0.5%)
F = 0/243
M = 2/192 (1%)
4/5
Sommer
(2005) [39]
South Africa
SchoolN = 299
(F = 185, M = 114)
▪ Overdose = 141/299 (47.2%)▪ Wrist cutting = 133/299 (44.4%)
▪ Jumping from height = 25/299 (8.4%)
2/5
Yéo-Tenena et al. (2010) [89]
Ivory Coast
HospitalN = 42
(F = 33, M = 9)
▪ Chloroquine = 26/42 (61.9%)
▪ Psychotropic = 8/42 (19%)
▪ Paracetamol = 4/42 (9.5%)
▪ Metronidazole = 3/42 (7.1%)
▪ Muriatic acid = 3/42 (7.1%)
▪ Sodium hypochlorite = 2/42 (4.8%)
▪ Ethyl alcohol = 2/42 (4.8%)
▪ Rat poison = 2/42 (4.8%)
▪ Thinner = 1/42 (2.4%)
▪ Hanging = 1/42 (2.4%)4/5
Beekrum et al. (2011) [24]
South Africa
HospitalN = 10
(F = 10)
▪ All participants took overdose of prescription medication belonging to a family member: benzodiazepines, steroidal anti-inflammatories, and various blood pressure medications. 5/5
Okoko et al.
(2011) [90]
Congo Brazzaville
HospitalN = 62
(F = 50, M = 12)
▪ Overdose = 53 (85.5%)
▪ Caustic soda = 6 (9.7%)
▪ Powder = 1 (1.6%)
▪ Rat poison = 1 (1.6%)
▪ Hanging = 1 (1.6%)4/5
Pretorius
(2011) [29]
South Africa
Children’s homesN = 12
(F = 10, M = 2)
▪ Cutting = 11 (91.6%)
▪ Carving words into skin = 11 (91.6%)
▪ Broken own bones = 9 (75%)
▪ Punching self = 8 (66.6%)
▪ Sharp objects through skin = 8 (66.6)
▪ Burning with a lighter or match = 7 (58.3%)
▪ Carving pictures or patterns into skin = 7 (58.3%)
▪ Scratching = 4 (33.3%)
▪ Rubbing glass into skin = 4 (33.3%)
▪ Banging of head = 4 (33.3%)
▪ Preventing wounds from healing = 4 (33.3%)
▪ Burning with a cigarette = 3 (25%)
▪ Biting = 1 (8.3%)
▪ Dripping acid onto skin = 1 (8.3%)
▪ Bleach or oven cleaner onto skin = 1 (8.3%)
▪ Rubbing sandpaper = 2 (16.6%).
3/5
Fine et al.
(2012) [91]
South Africa
HospitalN = 50
(F = 31
M = 19)
▪ Overdose = 17/50 (34%)
▪ Poisoning = 2/50 (4%)
▪ Drowning = 2/50 (4%)
▪ Cutting = 36/50 (75%)
▪ Hanging = 10 (20%)
▪ Jumping from a height = 3/50 (6%)
3/5
Shilubane et al. (2012) [32]
South Africa
CommunityN = 14
(F = 8, M = 6)
Ingestion of:
▪ Medications = 9/14 (64.3%)
▪ Paraffin = 1/14 (7.1%)
▪ Disinfectant = 1/14 (7.1)
▪ Burning = 1/14 (7.1%)
▪ Hanging = 1/14 (7.1%)
4/5
Van Rooyen
(2013)a [50]
Lippi
(2014)a [52]
South Africa
UniversityN = 603
(F = 483, M = 120)
▪ Cutting = 132/603 (21.9%)
▪ Severe scratching = 93/603 (15.4%)
▪ Carving words into skin = 70/603 (11.6%)
▪ Burning with lighter or match = 66/603 (10.9%)
▪ Sticking objects into skin = 52/603 (8.6%)
▪ Punching self = 48/603 (8%)
▪ Carving pictures into skin = 44/603 (7.3%)
▪ Burning with cigarette = 42/603 (7%)
▪ Interfering with wound healing = 36/603 (6.5%)
▪ Banging head = 30/603 (5%)
3/5
van der Walt
(2016) [60]
South Africa
UniversityN = 201
(F = 110, M = 91)
▪ Alcohol abuse = 46/201 (22.9%)
▪ Overdose = 25/201 (12.4%)
▪ Medication abuse = 12/201 (6%)
▪ Hitting self = 26/201 (12.9%)
▪ Head banging = 24/201 (11.9%)
▪ Cutting = 18/201 (9%)
▪ Scratching = 17/201 (8.5%)
▪ Exercised an injury on purpose = 12/201 (6%)
▪ Prevented wounds from healing = 10/201 (5%)
▪ Burning = 4/201 (2%)
▪ Reckless driving = 21/201 (10.4%)
3/5
Meissner & Bantjes (2017) [27]
South Africa
UniversityN = 4 (M = 4)▪ Hanging = 2/4 (50%)
▪ Car accident = 2/4 (50%)
5/5
Kritzinger
(2018) [26]
South Africa
HospitalN = 10 (F = 10)▪ Overdose
▪ Rat poison
▪ Furniture oil
5/5
  1. F Female
  2. M Male
  3. a The studies by Lippi (2014) [52] and van Rooyen (2013) [50] were based on the same dataset, the 2009 University of Pretoria student survey in South Africa