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Table 1 Number and percentage of participants on personal and contextual determinants

From: Prevalence and distribution pattern of mood swings in Thai adolescents: a school-based survey in the central region of Thailand

VariablesTotal Number (%) (n = 2598)Number (%) on Location of school (n = 2593a)
Bangkok (n = 561)Urban (n = 1095)Suburban (n = 937)
Sex
 Male884 (34.0)292 (52.0)389 (35.5)203 (21.7)
 Female1549 (59.6)238 (42.4)626 (57.2)680 (72.6)
 Creative gender165 (6.4)31 (5.5)80 (7.3)54 (5.7)
Age (years)
 15 – 161000 (38.5)198 (35.3)461 (42.1)338 (36.1)
 17 – 181517 (58.4)354 (63.1)577 (52.7)586 (62.5)
 ≥1981 (3.1)9 (1.6)57 (5.2)13 (1.4)
Family history of mental problems
 No1991 (76.6)418 (74.5)821 (75.0)748 (79.8)
 Yes226 (8.7)53 (9.4)115 (10.5)58 (6.1)
  - father/mother/sibling136 (5.2)34 (6.1)69 (6.3)33 (3.5)
  - grandparents/uncle/aunt77 (3.0)18 (3.2)37 (3.4)22 (2.3)
  - cousin13 (0.5)1 (0.2)9 (0.8)3 (0.3)
 Uncertain/Unknown381 (14.7)90 (16.0)159 (14.5)131 (14.0)
Mood Swings (MS)
 Mood swings (AD>5&DE>9&A>5)686 (26.4)182 (32.4)296 (27.0)206 (22.0)
  - Anxiety/Depression (AD) (Above norm=>5)255 (48.3)315 (56.1)516 (47.1)420 (44.8)
  - Depression/Elation (DE) (Above norm=>9)1210 (46.6)302 (53.8)484 (44.2)422 (38.5)
  - Anger (A) (Above norm=>5)1062 (40.9)256 (45.6)455 (41.6)349 (37.2)
Bullying (IBS)
 Bullying involvement (Above norm=>13)1293 (49.8)308 (54.9)555 (50.7)427 (45.6)
  - Bully behavior (Above norm=>6)1285 (49.5)315 (56.1)542 (49.5)425 (45.4)
  - Fight behavior (Above norm=>3)1034 (39.8)242 (43.1)474 (43.3)316 (33.7)
  - Victim behavior (Above norm=>3)1279 (49.2)295 (52.6)550 (50.2)431 (46.0)
Social Media Use (IAT)
 - Normal (score < 49)1383 (53.2)287 (51.1)616 (56.3)479 (51.1)
 - Trend to impact (score 50 - 79)1088 (41.9)243 (43.3)431 (39.4)410 (43.8)
 - Get impact/problems (score > 80)127 (4.9)31 (5.5)48 (4.4)48 (5.1)
1st order reason to use social media
 - Find someone to chat625 (24.1)132 (23.5)260 (23.7)232 (24.8)
 - Play game665 (25.6)137 (24.4)276 (25.2)250 (26.7)
 - Communicate in family552 (21.2)123 (21.9)212 (19.3)216 (23.1)
 - Entertainment828 (31.9)182 (32.4)322 (29.4)323 (34.5)
 - Chat with boy/girlfriend732 (28.2)173 (30.8)291 (26.6)268 (28.6)
 - Education/knowledge390 (15.0)84 (15.0)164 (15.0)142 (15.2)
Substance use in 3 months past
 - Tobacco (score>2)61 (2.3)12 (2.1)43 (3.9)6 (0.6)
 - Alcohol (score>3)387 (14.9)76 (13.5)169 (15.4)142 (15.2)
 - Cannabis (score>2)55 (2.1)8 (1.4)32 (2.9)15 (1.6)
 - Stimulant (score>2)33 (1.3)4 (0.7)18 (1.6)11 (1.2)
 - Sedative (score>2)45 (1.7)7 (1.2)26 (2.4)12 (1.3)
 - Heroin (score>2)25 (1.0)3 (0.5)13 (1.2)9 (1.0)
 - Other substanceb63 (2.4)11 (2.0)32 (2.9)20 (2.1)
 - Energy drinking (score>2)351 (13.5)89 (15.9)150 (13.7)112 (12.0)
Family structure
 - Both parents are together1632 (62.8)370 (66.0)653 (59.6)604 (64.5)
 - Single parent847 (32.6)160 (28.5)386 (35.3)301 (32.1)
 - Father/mother remarried95 (3.7)22 (3.9)44 (4.0)29 (3.1)
 - Foster24 (0.9)9 (1.6)12 (1.1)3 (0.3)
Family circumstance:
 Expressed emotion in family (EE)
  High EE (Above norm= > 108)1256 (48.3)307 (54.7)536 (48.9)412 (44.0)
   - Lack of support (LES) High LES (Above norm=>40)1185 (45.6)300 (53.5)510 (46.6)375 (40.0)
   - Intrusive (INTR) High INTR (Above norm=>18)1295 (49.2)266 (47.4)575 (52.5)451 (48.1)
   - Irritation (IRR) High IRR (Above norm=>15)1205 (46.4)280 (49.9)507 (46.3)417 (44.5)
   - Criticism (C) High C (Above norm=>11)1224 (47.1)283 (50.4)547 (49.9)393 (41.9)
   - Positive Criticism (PC) High PC (Above norm=>24)987 (38.0)195 (34.8)406 (37.1)381 (40.6)
 Educational program
  - High school1382 (53.2)227 (40.5)489 (44.7)662 (70.7)
  - Vocational school1216 (46.8)334 (59.5)606 (55.3)275 (29.3)
  1. afive were missing data of school variables
  2. bOther substance use groups, participated were reported, identified Pro (procodyl), B5 (benzhexol), tramadol, codeine