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Table 2 Summary of scores on: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and Social and Work Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Data are based on episodes (see n below), not unique patients

From: Step-up, step-down mental health care service: evidence from Western Australia’s first – a mixed-method cohort study

  Entry    Exit    Exit-Entry Difference    
n mean SD n mean SD n pairs mean (95% CI) p-value % change Cohen’s d
K-10 441 31.5 9.0 230 24.1 9.5 181 −6.5 (−8.0, −4.9) <.0001 −20.7% −0.70
GSES 390 24.8 5.7 213 28.2 5.6 158 3.5 (2.6, 4.4) <.0001 14.1% 0.62
WSAS 444 23.7 9.1 229 19.3 10.4 183 −3.0 (−4.3, −1.7) <.0001 −12.8% −0.31
  1. Note: K-10 and WSAS measure dysfunction, hence negative (−) score changes are desired; whereas GSES measures function, hence positive (+) score change is desired
  2. % change relative to Entry, or baseline
  3. CI Confidence Interval