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Table 3 Factors associated with improvement in K-10 scores (reduction desired) and GSES scores (increase desired), from service entry to exit

From: Step-up, step-down mental health care service: evidence from Western Australia’s first – a mixed-method cohort study

Factor Comparison Reduction in K10 score   Increase in GSES score  
Estimate (95% CI) p-value Estimate (95% CI) p-value
Baseline score 1-point increment in score −0.60 (− 0.74, − 0.46) < 0.0001 *** − 0.57 (− 0.70, − 0.43) <.0001 ***
Age 1-year increment in age −0.15 (− 0.27, − 0.04) 0.0117 * 0.06 (− 0.01, 0.13) 0.0922
Gender Female v Male − 3.46 (− 6.61, − 0.32) 0.031 * 1.86 (0.06, 3.67) 0.0431 *
Indigenous status Yes v No 11.60 (3.02, 20.17) 0.0083 ** −2.27 (− 7.14, 2.60) 0.3587
SES disadvantage Yes v No 3.17 (−0.62, 6.96) 0.1010 −0.44 (−2.66, 1.78) 0.6980
Country of Birth Australia v Overseas 0.21 (− 4.36, 4.78) 0.9266 −0.45 (−3.01, 2.12) 0.7316
Living arrangement With family v Alone −2.76 (−7.51, 2.00) 0.2541 1.28 (−1.51, 4.07) 0.3659
With others v Alone −2.17 (−9.06, 4.72) 0.5337 0.51 (−3.46, 4.48) 0.7989
Has dependent child Child not with consumer v Child with consumer 8.62 (2.40, 14.83) 0.0069 ** −3.15 (−6.65, 0.35) 0.0775
No child v Child with consumer 9.57 (4.63, 14.52) 0.0002 *** −4.53 (−7.24, −1.81) 0.0013 **
In labour force Yes v No 5.15 (− 0.72, 11.02) 0.0850 −1.60 (−4.60, 1.41) 0.2951
Referral type Step-up v Step-down −2.12 (−5.33, 1.09) 0.1935 1.13 (−0.67, 2.94) 0.2166
Primary diagnosis group Bipolar v Psychosis −2.99 (−8.74, 2.77) 0.3067 2.75 (−0.41, 5.91) 0.0872
Personality v Psychosis −5.96 (−11.52, −0.41) 0.0356 * 3.62 (0.80, 6.45) 0.0124 *
Depression v Psychosis −5.24 (−10.02, −0.45) 0.0322 * 3.86 (1.39, 6.34) 0.0024 **
Other v Psychosis −1.82 (−7.76, 4.12) 0.5467 0.66 (−2.37, 3.69) 0.6683
# Episodes Single v Multiple 3.25 (−0.37, 6.87) 0.0785 −2.42 (−4.95, 0.10) 0.0594
Length of stay 1-day increment in stay 0.14 (−0.02, 0.31) 0.0832 −0.02 (− 0.13, 0.09) 0.7670
  1. Statistics shown are for episodes, not unique patients
  2. *, **, and *** indicate statistical significance at p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively