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Table 1 Variables explored in current study and prior research

From: Factors and predictors of length of stay in offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia - a machine-learning-based approach

variable in current studycategorization in current studyprior research with similar variable
Socio-demographic variables
 age at admissionnumerical[1, 6, 14, 16, 17, 26,27,28,29,30]
 genderdichotomous (female, male)[1, 5, 6, 15, 16, 26, 27, 30, 34, 42]
 marital status at time of index offencedichotomous (married, single)[5, 6, 15, 16, 26,27,28, 31, 35]
 level of educationdichotomous (graduation from mandatory schooling/ no graduation from mandatory schooling)[1, 6, 14, 16, 28, 34, 35]
 employment at time of index offenceunemployed/ employed/ other (retired…)[5, 6, 16, 26, 27, 35]
 country of birth Switzerlanddichotomous (yes/ no)[5,6,7, 14, 16, 17, 26,27,28, 30, 34]
 religionCatholic/Muslim/other[6, 28]
 homelessness at index offencedichotomous (yes/ no)[1, 15, 16]
Childhood variables
 childhood history of physical abusedichotomous (yes/ no)[5]
 childhood history of sexual abusedichotomous (yes/ no)[7]
 relationship instability in childhooddichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 7, 17]
 parental psychiatric historydichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 7]
 sexual deviation in childhooddichotomous (yes/ no)[7]
 psychiatric admission in childhooddichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 6]
 alcohol abuse in childhooddichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 35]
 school maladjustmentdichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 35]
 poor family socioeconomic status (according to the definition of poverty by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office 2016 [45])dichotomous (yes/ no)[35]
 childhood aggressiondichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 35]
 separation from caregiverdichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 35]
Offence related variables
 index offence leading to admissionhomicide, including attempted/assault/threat, coercion/sexual abuse of children/rape, sexual assault/other sexual offence/ property crime without violence/property crime with violence/arson/criminal damage/traffic offences/offences against the controlled substances act/offences against the weapons act/other offences[1, 5,6,7, 14,15,16,17, 27,28,29,30,31, 34, 35]
 age at index offencenumeric[1, 5,6,7, 35]
 number of index offencesnumeric[6, 35]
 any previous convictiondichotomous (yes/ no)[5,6,7, 14,15,16,17, 28, 30, 31]
 age at first convictionnumeric[5,6,7, 16, 17, 30]
 victim injured deadly/severelydichotomous (yes/ no)[34, 35]
 number of victimsnumeric[34]
 victim known to offenderdichotomous (yes/ no)[34, 35]
 alcohol involved at offencedichotomous (yes/ no)[42]
 previous forensic psychiatric admissionsdichotomous (yes/ no)[15,16,17]
 withdrawal of conditional releasedichotomous (yes/ no)[16]
 residual criminal responsibilitydichotomous (yes/ no)[6, 16]
Psychiatric variables
 number of previous psychiatric admissionsnumeric[5, 6, 14,15,16,17, 30, 31, 35]
 age at first admissionnumeric[14, 16, 30]
 specific schizophrenic spectrum disorderschizophrenia/schizotypal disorder/acute psychotic disorder/schizoaffective disorder[1, 5,6,7, 14,15,16,17, 27, 28, 30, 31, 35, 42]
 personality disorder lifetimedichotomous (yes/ no)[1, 5, 6, 14,15,16,17, 27, 30, 31, 35]
 mood disorder lifetimedichotomous (yes/ no)[1, 5, 6, 14,15,16, 27, 28, 42]
 alcohol abuse lifetimedichotomous (yes/ no)[6, 15, 17, 31, 35]
 substance abuse lifetimedichotomous (yes/ no)[5,6,7, 15,16,17, 27, 28, 31]
 sexual deviationdichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 7]
 level of intelligencehigh/average/low[6, 7, 16, 35]
 history of self-harmingdichotomous (yes/ no)[6]
 history of suicide attempt(s)dichotomous (yes/ no)[6]
 delusions prior to admissiondichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 27]
 hallucinations prior to admissiondichotomous (yes/ no)[5, 27]
 cognitive impairment prior to admissiondichotomous (yes/ no)[6]
Current forensic hospitalization
 violent incidentsdichotomous (yes/ no)[1, 5, 6, 16, 31, 42]
 self-harmingdichotomous (yes/ no)[6]
 suicide attempt(s)dichotomous (yes/ no)[6, 16, 42]
 attempts to substance usedichotomous (yes/ no)[1]
 escape attempt(s)dichotomous (yes/ no)[1, 6, 16]
 performance in occupational workgood/average/low[6, 26]
 difficulties during psychological therapydichotomous (yes/ no)[6]
 pharmacological treatmentdichotomous (yes/ no)[6, 7, 15]
 contact with family/friendsdichotomous (yes/ no)[6]
 changes in diagnosis during current treatmentDichotomous (yes/ no)[6]
 admission source into current hospitalizationnone/supervised living facility/prison/other forensic hospital/psychiatry[6, 30]
 involuntary medicationdichotomous (yes/ no)[31]
 insight into wrongfulness of offencedichotomous (yes/ no)[35]
 adherence (insight into illness and need of therapy)dichotomous (yes/ no)[26]
 PANSS at admissionnumeric[28, 29]
 PANSS at dischargenumeric[28, 29]