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Table 2 The association between individual socio-demographic, social and clinical characteristics, and anxiety among participants

From: Depression, anxiety, and associated factors in patients with diabetes: evidence from the anxiety, depression, and personality traits in diabetes mellitus (ADAPT-DM) study

VariablesCrude OR (95% CI)p-value
Age0.99 (0.96–1.02)0.585
Gender
 Male1 
 Female0 .75 (0 .34–1.68)0.485
Ethnicity:
 Non-Malays1 
 Malays0 .39 (0.18–0.88)0.022*
Marital status:
 Married1 
 Not married1.73 (0.58–5.17)0.331
Education:
 Secondary & below1 
 Tertiary1.05 (0.47–2.35)0.905
Employment:
 Employed1 
 Unemployed0.53 (0.20–1.36)0.186*
 Retired0.34 (0.13–0.91)0.032*
Household income:
  < RM3,0001 
 RM3,000–60000.41 (0.12–1.42)0.158*
  > RM6,0000.38 (0.11–1.32)0.127*
Regular religious practice:
 Disagree1 
 Neutral0.18 (0.03–1.06)0.058*
 Agree0.34 (0.10–1.11)0.074*
Perceived social support:
 Poor1 
 Neutral1.05 (0.19–5.76)0.953
 Good0.26 (0.05–1.36)0.311
Cigarette smoking:
 Non-smoker1 
 Smoker1.58 (0.69–3.61)0.276
Alcohol:
 No1 
 Yes0.38 (0.05–2.93)0.354
Recreational drug use:
 No1 
 Yes2.59 (0.28–24.01)0.403
Obesity:
 BMI < 251 
 BMI 25–301.99 (0.64–6.14)0.254
 BMI > 301.33 (0.36–4.94)0.667
Diabetes mellitus type:
 Type I or gestational diabetes1 
 Type II diabetes2.74 (0.36–21.00)0.333
Insulin therapy:
 No1 
 Yes1.51 (0.64–3.57)0.350
Good self-perceived diabetic management:
 Disagree1 
 Neutral0.19 (0.05–0.69)0.011*
 Agree0.10 (0.03–0.31)<  0.001*
Diabetic control:
 Good1 
 Poor1.61 (0.63–4.13)0.322
Depression:
 No depression1 
 Depression36.68 (12.00–112.06)<  0.001*
Overall perception of QOL:
 Poor/very poor1 
 Neutral0.10 (0.02–0.48)0.004*
 Good/very good0.03 (0.01–0.14)<  0.001*
Overall perception of health
 Poor/very poor1 
 Neutral0.18 (0.07–0.46)<  0.001*
 Good/very good0.09 (0.03–0.27)<  0.001*
WHOQOL-BREF domains
 Physical health0.72 (0.61–0.85)<  0.001*
 Psychological0.48 (0.38–0.62)<  0.001*
 Social relationships0.61 (0.51–0.74)<  0.001*
 Environment0.60 (0.48–0.56)<  0.001*
BFI subscales
 Extraversion0.38 (0.17–0.85)0.018*
 Agreeableness0.20 (0.07–0.54)0.001*
 Conscientiousness0.52 (0.22–1.23)0.135*
 Neuroticism16.84 (6.16–40.01)<  0.001*
 Openness1.91 (0.85–4.29)0.119*
 Neuroticism x perceived social support1.24 (1.06–1.46)0.009*
  1. *p-value < 0.25