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Table 3 The association between individual socio-demographic, social and clinical characteristics, and depression among participants

From: Depression, anxiety, and associated factors in patients with diabetes: evidence from the anxiety, depression, and personality traits in diabetes mellitus (ADAPT-DM) study

VariablesCrude OR (95% CI)p-value
Age0.98 (0.96–0.99)0.030*
Gender
 Male1 
 Female0.76 (0.43–1.34)0.341
Ethnicity
 Non-Malays1 
 Malays0.84 (0.47–1.50)0.545
Marital status:
 Married1 
 Not married1.05 (0.53–2.08)0.890
Education
 Secondary & below1 
 Tertiary0.85 (0.48–1.53)0.596
Employment
 Employed1 
 Unemployed0.91 (0.46–1.81)0.788
 Retired0.42 (0.20–0.87)0.019*
Household income
  < RM3,0001 
 RM3,000–60000.96 (0.41–1.97)0.916
  > RM6,0000.36 (0.14–0.89)0.027*
Regular religious practice
 Disagree1 
 Neutral0.24 (0.07–0.78)0.018*
 Agree0.22 (0.08–0.58)0.002*
Perceived social support
 Poor1 
 Neutral2.40 (0.46–12.57)0.300
 Good0.79 (0.16–3.87)0.773
Cigarette smoking
 Non-smoker1 
 Smoker1.13 (0.61–2.10)0.700
Alcohol
 No1 
 Yes0.50 (0.14–1.71)0.268
Recreational drug use
 No1 
 Yes0.98 (0.11–9.10)0.988
Obesity
 BMI < 251 
 BMI 25–301.32 (0.64–2.75)0.454
 BMI > 301.02 (0.44–2.39)0.962
Diabetes mellitus type
 Type I or gestational diabetes1 
 Type II diabetes1.11 (0.40–3.06)0.840
Insulin therapy:
 No1 
 Yes0.83 (0.46–1.47)0.513
Good self-perceived diabetic management
 Disagree1 
 Neutral0.49 (0.16–1.53)0.218*
 Agree0.20 (0.07–0.59)0.004*
Diabetic control
 Good1 
 Poor1.42 (0.74–2.70)0.289
Anxiety
 No Anxiety1 
 Anxiety36.68 (12.00–112.06)<  0.001*
Overall perception of QOL
 Poor/very poor1 
 Neutral0.14 (0.03–0.73)0.019*
 Good/very good0.05 (0.01–0.28)<  0.001*
Overall perception of health
Poor/very poor1 
 Neutral0.46 (0.21–0.98)<  0.045*
 Good/very good0.20 (0.09–0.46)<  0.001*
WHOQOL-BREF domains
 Physical health0.66 (0.58–0.76)<  0.001*
 Psychological0.58 (0.49–0.61)<  0.001*
 Social relationships0.68 (0.59–0.77)<  0.001*
 Environment0.66 (0.56–0.78)<  0.001*
BFI subscales
 Extraversion0.50 (0.28–0.89)0.018*
 Agreeableness0.36 (0.18–0.73)0.004*
 Conscientiousness0.33 (0.17–0.63)0.001*
 Neuroticism5.54 (3.02–10.18)<  0.001*
 Openness1.23 (0.70–2.17)0.476
 Neuroticism x perceived social support1.19 (1.06–1.33)0.004*
  1. * p-value < 0.25