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Table 1 Comparisons of baseline socio-demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, disease history, and frailty status according to cognitive status

From: Cognitive function and its transitions in predicting all-cause mortality among urban community-dwelling older adults

VariablesCognitive impairment N (%)p value
No (N = 779)Yes (N = 142)
Socio-demographic factors
 Men427 (54.81)51 (35.92)< 0.001
Age (years)73.26 ± 6.0278.15 ± 7.27< 0.001
 65–74493 (63.29)47 (33.10) 
 75–84249 (31.96)63 (44.37) 
   ≥ 8537 (4.75)32 (22.54) 
Education  < 0.001
 No education68 (8.73)36 (25.35) 
 Primary education217 (27.86)44 (30.99) 
 Secondary or tertiary education494 (63.41)62 (43.66) 
Married582 (74.71)77 (54.23)< 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.43 ± 3.4223.95 ± 3.820.13
  < 18.526 (3.34)11 (7.75) 
 18.5–24.9449 (57.64)80 (56.34) 
 25–29.9264 (33.89)42 (29.58) 
  ≥ 3040 (5.13)9 (6.34) 
Lifestyle behaviors
 Smoking72 (9.24)12 (8.45)0.87
 Alcohol drinking107 (13.74)10 (7.04)0.04
 Physical activity576 (73.94)90 (63.38)0.01
Disease history
 Hypertension390 (50.06)81 (57.04)0.15
 Diabetes Mellitus125 (16.05)27 (19.01)0.45
 Heart disease227 (29.14)51 (35.92)0.13
 Hyperlipidemia200 (25.67)30 (21.13)0.30
 Gout87 (11.17)16 (11.27)1.00
 Hyperuricemia76 (9.76)19 (13.38)0.25
 Arthritis154 (19.77)29 (20.42)0.95
 Osteoporosis136 (17.46)30 (21.13)0.35
 Stroke39 (5.01)17 (11.97)0.003
 Cataract333 (42.75)90 (63.38)< 0.001
 Cancer136 (17.46)30 (21.13)0.35
 Fall history160 (20.54)55 (38.73)< 0.001
 Sleep disturbance345 (44.29)71 (50.00)0.24
Frailty status63 (8.09)38 (26.76)< 0.001
Frailty components
 Shrinking98 (12.58)23 (16.20)0.30
 Poor endurance and energy28 (3.59)9 (6.34)0.19
 Low physical activity132 (16.94)35 (24.65)0.04
 Slowness238 (30.55)93 (65.49)< 0.001
 Weakness202 (25.93)72 (50.70)< 0.001
  1. Mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables; numbers (percentage) for categorical variables