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Table 4 Scale scores (mean ± S.D.) of the six factors in healthy volunteers (controls, n = 738), patients in manic (n = 45), hypomanic (n = 111), bipolar depressive (n = 316), and major depressive (n = 192) states

From: Symptom continuum reported by affective disorder patients through a structure-validated questionnaire

FactorControlsManic stateHypomanic stateBipolar depressiveMajor depressiveCohen’s d
Psychomotor Acceleration5.69 ± 2.287.33 ± 1.26a7.30 ± .96a7.22 ± 1.28a3.59 ± 2.72abcd.734 ~ 1.859
Hopelessness1.92 ± 1.932.44 ± 2.265.45 ± 2.87ab4.21 ± 3.08abc7.22 ± 2.61abcd.410 ~ 2.538
Suicide Tendency.15 ± .58.38 ± .981.35 ± 2.07ab.78 ± 1.60ac2.24 ± 2.28abcd.329 ~ 1.807
Overactivation1.19 ± 1.424.09 ± 1.49a1.13 ± 1.15b2.66 ± 2.03abc.90 ± 1.02b.725 ~ 2.803
Retardation1.67 ± 1.642.13 ± 1.803.85 ± 2.52ab3.37 ± 2.60ab5.04 ± 2.28abcd.493 ~ 1.882
Distraction/ Impulsivity1.80 ± 1.493.80 ± 1.78a2.95 ± 1.37ab3.69 ± 1.59 ac1.89 ± 1.30bc.482 ~ 1.362
  1. Note: ap < .01 vs. controls; bp < .01 vs. manic; cp < .01 vs. hypomanic; and dp < .01 vs. bipolar depressive