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Table 5 Multiple multivariate linear regressions of kinship predicting caregiving impacts

From: A cross-sectional study on spouse and parent differences in caregiving experiences of people living with schizophrenia in rural China

Variables  Coefficients(95% CI)  
Family burden (FBIS)Caregiver burden (ZBI)Depression (PHQ-9)Anxiety (GAD-7)Caregiving rewarding feelings (CRF)Family functioning (APGAR)
KinshipSpouserefrefrefrefrefref
Parent1.05
(−2.01, 4.11)
7.94**
(2.08, 13.80)
3.88**
(1.35, 6.41)
2.53*
(0.22, 4.84)
−0.69
(−1.72, 0.33)
−1.71**
(− 2.85, − 0.57)
PLS functioning (GAF)−0.19***
(− 0.24, − 0.14)
− 0.36***
(− 0.45, − 0.27)
−0.09***
(− 0.13, − 0.05)
−0.05**
(− 0.08, − 0.01)
0.03***
(0.01, 0.05)
0.04***
(0.02, 0.06)
PLS genderMalerefrefrefrefrefref
Female0.56
(− 1.93, 3.06)
3.00
(− 1.78, 7.78)
0.02
(− 2.04, 2.08)
−0.44
(− 2.35, 1.46)
0.42
(− 0.41, 1.26)
−0.31
(− 1.23, 0.62)
PLS educationPrimaryrefrefrefrefrefref
Middle−0.41
(− 2.93, 2.10)
−0.10
(−4.82, 4.80)
− 1.91
(−3.99, 0.17)
− 1.06
(− 2.97, 0.85)
−0.58
(− 1.42, 0.27)
−0.09
(− 1.03, 0.85)
High0.71
(− 2.42, 3.84)
− 0.36
(−6.42, 5.70)
−0.51
(− 3.08, 2.06)
−0.64
(− 3.00, 1.72)
−0.18
(− 1.22, 0.87)
−0.08
(− 1.24, 1.08)
Caregiver age −1.51*
(− 0.29, − 0.01)
−0.42**
(− 0.68, − 0.16)
−0.11
(− 0.22, 0.01)
−0.01
(− 0.12, 0.09)
0.02
(− 0.03, 0.06)
0.03
(− 0.02, 0.08)
Caregiver genderMalerefrefrefrefrefref
Female2.77
(−0.01, 5.55)
−0.29
(−5.60, 5.02)
0.46
(− 1.82, 2.74)
1.80
(− 0.29, 3.89)
1.42**
(0.50, 2.35)
0.67
(− 0.36, 1.70)
Caregiver marriageMarriedrefrefrefrefrefref
Not married−1.43
(− 4.80, 1.94)
−6.72
(− 13.12, −0.32)
− 2.02
(− 4.77, 0.73)
−2.72
(− 5.27, − 0.17)
−0.40
(− 1.53, 0.72)
0.57
(− 0.68, 1.81)
Caregiver employmentEmployedrefrefrefrefrefref
Not employed0.59
(− 1.77, 2.95)
2.90
(− 1.65, 7.45)
0.60
(− 1.34, 2.55)
−0.28
(− 2.06, 1.51)
− 0.49
(− 1.28, 0.30)
−0.36
(− 1.24, 0.51)
Caregiver educationPrimaryrefrefrefrefrefref
Middle1.04
(− 1.70, 3.78)
0.10
(−5.16, 5.35)
−0.46
(−2.71, 1.80)
− 0.72
(− 2.79, 1.35)
−0.26
(− 1.18, 0.65)
0.84
(− 0.18, 1.86)
High− 3.26
(− 6.97, 0.45)
−5.41
(− 12.53, 1.72)
−3.53*
(− 6.58, − 0.48)
−4.23
(−7.03, − 1.43)
1.14
(− 0.10, 2.38)
0.53
(− 0.85, 1.91)
Caregiver family income−0.00
(− 0.00, 0.00)
−0.00
(− 0.00, 0.00)
−0.00
(− 0.00, 0.00)
−0.00
(− 0.00, 0.00)
−0.00
(− 0.00, 0.00)
−0.00
(− 0.00, 0.00)
Co-caregiversNorefrefrefrefrefref
 Yes0.24
(− 2.14, 2.61)
−4.96*
(−9.50, −0.43)
−0.48
(− 2.43, 1.47)
−0.85
(− 2.65, 0.95)
0.16
(− 0.63, 0.95)
1.22**
(0.34, 2.10)
Additional dependentsNorefrefrefrefrefref
Yes2.13
(−0.14, 4.40)
−0.83
(− 5.19, 3.53)
0.20
(− 1.67, 2.07)
−0.17
(− 1.89, 1.55)
0.40
(− 0.36, 1.16)
0.32
(− 0.52, 1.16)
Physical illnessNorefrefrefrefrefref
Yes1.88
(−0.60, 4.37)
3.17
(−1.61, 7.94)
3.03**
(0.96, 5.09)
2.05*
(0.15, 3.94)
0.29
(−0.54, 1.12)
0.09
(−0.84, 1.01)
Length of caring 0.07
(−0.05, 0.19)
0.14
(−0.09, 0.37)
0.01
(− 0.09, 0.11)
−0.04
(− 0.13, 0.05)
0.01
(− 0.02, 0.05)
−0.02
(− 0.06, 0.03)
R2 34.44%33.56%24.47%18.82%13.84%18.50%
Mean VIF (range)& 1.43
(1.07, 2.13)
1.42
(1.07, 2.12)
1.42
(1.07, 2.14)
1.43
(1.07, 2.13)
1.42
(1.07, 2.13)
1.42
(1.07, 2.13)
  1. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001, numbers in bold represents significant values at P = 0.05/0.01/0.001
  2. GAF Global Assessment of Function; PLS People living with schizophrenia; FBIS: Family Burden Interview Schedule; ZBI Zarit Burden Interview; PHQ-9 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire; GAD-7 7-item Generalized Anxiety
  3. Disorder Scale; CRF Caregiving Rewarding Feelings; APGAR Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve Index scale
  4. &VIF variance inflation factor, indicating collinearity if VIF > 5, here all VIF are below the criteria thus excluding multicollinearity