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Table 3 Association between parental psychiatric diagnoses and offspring SM

From: The impact of parental psychopathology and sociodemographic factors in selective mutism - a nationwide population-based study

 Mothers
Cases (N = 860)
N (%)
Controls (N = 3250)
N (%)
OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)
Schizophrenia and
schizoaffective disorders
18 (2.1)14 (0.4)5.0 (2.4–10.2)***4.4 (2.0–10.1)**
Selective mutism0 (0.0)0 (0.0)N/AN/A
Other psychoses35 (4.1)28 (0.9)4.7 (2.9–7.8)***4.2 (2.4–7.2)***
Bipolar disorders17 (2.0)24 (0.7)2.8 (1.5–5.2)*2.2 (1.1–4.2)*
Unipolar mood disorders158 (18.4)276 (8.5)2.4 (2.0–3.0)***2.2 (1.7–2.7)***
Anxiety disorders (including childhood anxiety disorders)66 (7.7)112 (3.5)2.4 (1.7–3.3)***2.1 (1.5–3.1)***
Personality disorders48 (5.6)51 (1.6)3.7 (2.4–5.6)***3.3 (2.1–5.1)***
Alcohol and drug addiction/abuse43 (5.0)84 (2.6)2.0 (1.4–2.9)**1.7 (1.2–2.6)*
Attention-deficit/
hyperactivity disorders
3 (0.4)11 (0.3)1.0 (0.3–3.7)1.3 (0.4–4.9)
Autism spectrum disorders0 (0.0)1 (0.03)N/AN/A
Conduct/oppositional defiant disorders1 (0.1)3 (0.1)N/AN/A
Learning and
coordination disorders
5 (0.6)3 (0.1)6.4 (1.5–27.0)*4.0 (0.9–17.7)
Intellectual disability5 (0.6)2 (0.1)9.6 (1.9–49.7)*7.9 (1.4–43.2)*
Other psychiatric disorders97 (11.3)257 (7.9)1.5 (1.2–1.9)*1.4 (1.06–1.8)*
 Fathers
Cases (N = 841)
N (%)
Controls (N = 3219)
N (%)
OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted ORb
(95% CI)
Schizophrenia and
schizoaffective disorders
8 (1.0)11 (0.3)2.7 (1.1–6.7)*2.1 (0.8–5.4)
Selective mutism0 (0.0)0 (0.0)N/AN/A
Other psychoses17 (2.0)27 (0.8)2.6 (1.4–4.9)*2.1 (1.1–4.1)*
Bipolar disorder14 (1.7)35 (1.1)1.6 (0.8–3.0)1.6 (0.8–3.1)
Unipolar mood disorders68 (8.1)153 (4.8)1.8 (1.3–2.4)**1.5 (1.1–2.0)*
Anxiety disorders (including childhood anxiety disorders)37 (4.4)81 (2.5)1.8 (1.2–2.7)*1.5 (0.98–2.3)
Personality disorders43 (5.1)77 (2.4)2.2 (1.5–3.2)***1.9 (1.3–2.8)*
Alcohol and drug addiction/abuse79 (9.4)143 (4.4)2.2 (1.7–3.0)***1.9 (1.4–2.5)***
Attention deficit/
hyperactivity disorders
3 (0.4)4 (0.1)3.0 (0.7–13.4)2.2 (0.5–10.4)
Autism spectrum disorders3 (0.4)1 (0.03)N/AN/A
Conduct/oppositional defiant disorders3 (0.4)3 (0.1)3.8 (0.8–18.9)2.9 (0.6–14.8)
Learning and
coordination disorders
5 (0.6)3 (0.1)6.4 (1.5–27.0)*5.6 (1.3–25.0)*
Intellectual disability2 (0.2)3 (0.1)2.7 (0.4–16.0)1.4 (0.2–9.9)
Other psychiatric disorders57 (6.8)165 (5.1)1.4 (0.99–1.86)1.2 (0.9–1.7)
  1. aAdjusted for maternal socioeconomic status (SES), maternal and paternal age and paternal psychopathology
  2. bAdjusted for maternal SES, maternal and paternal age and maternal psychopathology
  3. Cases without any specific diagnoses in each group were used as reference values.
  4. *P ≤ 0.05 **P ≤ 0.001 ***P < 0.0001