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Table 5 Summary of the number of studies indicating an association between social support and each outcome

From: A systematic review of studies describing the influence of informal social support on psychological wellbeing in people bereaved by sudden or violent causes of death

  Number of studies indicating an association between social support and outcome
Positive associationa Partial positive associationb No association Negative association
Outcome
 Psychiatric
  Depression (N = 7) 4 [27, 45, 47, 48] 2 [33, 36] 1 [31]
  PTSD (N = 6) 4 [38, 47, 50, 52] 2 [31, 33]
  Complicated grief (N = 6) 2 [40, 43] 1 [33] 2 [44, 47] 1 [31]
  Prolonged grief (N = 1) 1 [38]
  Anxiety (N = 1) 1 [31]
  Suicidal ideation (N = 1) 1 [45]
 Psychological
  Emotional distress (N = 1) 1 [38]
  Grief (N = 1) 1 [50]
  Grief difficulties (N = 1) 1 [45]
  Initial impact of event (N = 1) 1 [36]
  Mental distress (N = 1) 1 [28]
  Mourning (N = 1) 1 [50]
  Personal growth (N = 1) 1 [45]
  Resilience (N = 1) 1 [29]
  Stress-related growth (N = 1) 1 [42]
  1. a all measured social support variables had a significant positive association with the reduced severity of, or reduced likelihood for meeting the threshold of diagnosis for a measured outcome
  2. b some but not all of the included social support variables had a significant positive association with reduced severity of, or reduced likelihood for meeting the threshold of diagnosis for the measured outcome, with the remaining included variables not significantly associated with the outcome