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Table 5 Multivariable Regressions for Negative Consequences of Internet Use (Parent-Report)

From: Problematic internet use in children and adolescents: associations with psychiatric disorders and impairment

Outcome Model 1a Beta (95% CI) p Model 2b Beta (95% CI) p Model 3c Beta (95% CI) p
Impairment 6.53 (5.09–7.97) <.001 6.56 (5.03–8.09) <.001 5.05 (3.67–6.42) <.001
Physical Activity −0.06 (− 0.20–0.07) 0.38 −0.04 (− 0.19–0.10) 0.56 0.00 (− 0.14–0.15) 0.98
BMI 0.96 (0.15–1.77) 0.02 − 0.18 (− 0.99–0.62) 0.65 −0.48 (−1.30–0.34) 0.25
FMI 0.39 (−0.17–0.95) 0.18 − 0.11 (− 0.68–0.46) 0.70 −0.32 (− 0.89–0.25) 0.27
Sleep Disturbances 4.51 (2.36–6.65) <.001 4.78 (2.50–7.07) <.001 3.55 (1.34–5.75) <.001
  1. aUnadjusted model; bAdjusted for sex, age, SES, collection site, and single caregiver; cAdjusted for sex, age, SES, collection site, single caregiver and all diagnoses; Beta values are standardized
  2. Separate linear regression models examining associations between parent-reported Problematic Internet Use (PIU) and impairment, physical health, and sleep