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Table 4 Risk factors for disability pension (DP) among patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause DP

From: Risk and risk factors for disability pension among patients with treatment resistant depression– a matched cohort study

 Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)a
Sex
 MenRefRef
 Women1.11 (0.95–1.28)1.21 (1.03–1.41)
Age (years)b
 18–29RefRef
 30–491.28 (1.08–1.52)1.32 (1.05–1.66)
 50–691.63 (1.34–1.98)1.70 (1.32–2.19)
Size of living area
 Small municipality1.01 (0.85–1.21)1.08 (0.90–1.29)
 Medium-sized municipality0.85 (0.72–1.01)0.89 (0.75–1.07)
 Large cityRef Ref
Attained education levelb
  ≤ 9 years1.20 (0.98–1.46)1.20 (0.97–1.49)
 10–12 years1.12 (0.93–1.35)1.09 (0.90–1.32)
  ≥ 13 yearsRefRef
Family situationb
 Married, living without childrenRefRef
 Married, living with children0.96 (0.75–1.24)1.03 (0.78–1.36)
 Unmarried, living without children0.75 (0.59–0.96)1.03 (0.79–1.34)
 Unmarried, living with children0.64 (0.46–0.89)0.66 (0.46–0.94)
  ≤ 20 years, living with parent/−s0.93 (0.69–1.25)1.90 (1.30–2.78)
Country of birth
 SwedenRefRef
 Other European country1.30 (0.96–1.77)1.32 (0.96–1.80)
 Other than Europe1.59 (1.35–1.88)1.55 (1.29–1.85)
Long-term sickness absencec
 NoRefRef
 Yes3.17 (2.70–3.72)3.26 (2.74–3.87)
Unemploymentd
 NoneRefRef
 1–179 days1.04 (0.87–1.25)1.24 (1.03–1.50)
  ≥ 180 days1.11 (0.82–1.50)1.24 (0.91–1.69)
History of depression
 NoRefRef
 Yes1.06 (0.87–1.30)1.01 (0.82–1.25)
History of anxiety disordere
 NoRefRef
 Yes0.92 (0.76–1.12)0.91 (0.75–1.12)
History of personality disordere
 NoRefRef
 Yes1.46 (0.99–2.16)1.58 (1.05–2.38)
Substance use disordere
 NoneRefRef
 Alcohol only0.73 (0.47–1.12)0.74 (0.47–1.15)
 Other/mixed0.82 (0.56–1.21)0.72 (0.48–1.07)
History of other psychiatric disordere
 NoRefRef
 Yes1.12 (0.81–1.54)1.26 (0.90–1.78)
History of self harm/suicide attempte
 NoRefRef
 Yes1.15 (0.86–1.55)1.19 (0.87–1.63)
CCI5, 6
 0RefRef
 11.60 (1.18–2.17)1.41 (1.03–1.92)
  ≥ 21.34 (0.69–2.59)0.87 (0.45–1.69)
  1. aAdjusted for all covariates
  2. bAt time of first antidepressant prescription
  3. c > 90 net days in the 365 days preceding first antidepressant prescription
  4. dIn the year preceding first antidepressant prescription
  5. eWithin 5 years before first antidepressant prescription
  6. fCharlson’s comorbidity index [40]