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Table 1 Study characteristics and mean scores of depressive symptoms in the visual impairment population (n = 736)

From: Social interactions, experiences with adverse life events and depressive symptoms in individuals with visual impairment: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsNo. (%) of participantsPHQ-9, Mean (SD)
Age
 18–35 years157 (21.3)6.00 (5.6)
 36–50 years186 (25.3)6.72 (6.1)
 51–65 years200 (27.2)4.54 (4.7)
  ≥ 66 years193 (26.2)3.93 (4.3)
Gender
 Women403 (54.8)5.77 (5.4)
 Men333 (45.2)4.61 (5.2)
Education
  ≥ 14 years335 (45.5)4.84 (4.9)
  < 14 years401 (54.5)5.58 (5.6)
Place of residence
 Village/town399 (54.2)5.78 (5.6)
 Small/large city337 (45.8)4.60 (4.9)
Marital status
 Married/cohabitant347 (47.2)5.57 (5.8)
 Unmarried389 (52.9)4.87 (4.8)
VI severity
 Moderate254 (34.5)5.32 (5.3)
 Severe296 (40.2)5.41 (5.6)
 Blind186 (25.3)4.86 (5.0)
Other impairments
 No478 (65.0)4.29 (4.7)
 Yes258 (35.0)7.00 (5.9)
Years since VI onset
 Congenital345 (46.9)4.87 (4.9)
 Acquired, ≥ 20 years148 (20.1)4.30 (4.6)
 Acquired, <  20 years243 (33.0)6.34 (6.1)
Social isolation
 Hardly ever439 (59.7)3.41 (3.8)
 Some/often297 (40.3)7.95 (6.1)
Social support¤
 High567 (77.0)4.27 (4.4)
 Low/moderate169 (23.0)8.50 (6.8)
Adverse exposure
 None380 (51.6)3.87 (4.1)
 Bullying only203 (27.6)5.46 (5.2)
 Abuse153 (20.8)8.35 (6.7)
  1. Notes. PHQ-9 nine-item Patients Health Questionnaire, VI visual impairment