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Table 2 Associations between social interaction, exposure to adverse life events and depressive symptoms in the visual impairment population (n = 736), unadjusted and fully adjusted for covariates and each of the main independent variables

From: Social interactions, experiences with adverse life events and depressive symptoms in individuals with visual impairment: a cross-sectional study

 UnadjustedFully adjusted
Exp(β) (95% CI)p-valueExp(β) (95% CI)p-value
Social isolation
 Hardly ever1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Some/often2.33 (2.02–2.70)< .0011.89 (1.63–2.20)< .001
Social support
 High1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Low/moderate1.99 (1.69–2.35)< .0011.55 (1.31–1.83)< .001
Adverse exposure
 None1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Bullying only1.41 (1.19–1.67)< .0011.13 (0.95–1.33).16
 Abuse2.16 (1.79–2.59)< .0011.41 (1.17–1.70)< .001
Covariates
Age (Continuous)a0.89 (0.85–0.93)< .0010.91 (0.87–0.95)< .001
Gender
 Men1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Women1.25 (1.08–1.45).0031.32 (1.15–1.51)< .001
Education
  ≥ 14 years1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
  < 14 years1.15 (1.00–1.34).061.09 (0.94–1.25).26
Place of residence
 Village/town1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Small/large city0.80 (0.69–0.92).0021.08 (0.93–1.24).32
Marital status
 Married/cohabitant1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Unmarried1.14 (0.99–1.32).070.90 (0.78–1.03).14
VI severity
 Moderate/other1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Severe1.02 (0.86–1.21).850.92 (0.78–1.08).29
 Blind0.91 (0.75–1.11).350.94 (0.79–1.13).51
Years since VI onset
 Congenital1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Acquired, ≥ 20 years0.88 (0.73–1.07).210.97 (0.80–1.18)0.76
 Acquired, <  20 years1.30 (1.10–1.53).0021.41 (1.20–1.66)< .001
Other impairments
 No1 [Referent] 1 [Referent] 
 Yes1.63 (1.40–1.90)< .0011.29 (1.12–1.50).001
  1. Notes. CI confidence interval, exp exponentiated, VI visual impairment; a: the variable was rescaled into 10-year age intervals