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Table 1 Participant characteristics (n = 800)

From: Is higher psychotropic medication burden associated with involuntary treatment under the Mental Health Act? A four-year Australian cohort study

 MHA statusp
Voluntary
n (%)
Involuntary
n (%)
Total cohort population507 (63.4)293 (36.6) 
Gender (male)284 (56.0)175 (59.7)0.3
Age (years), mean (SD)38.1 (12.1)38.8 (11.9)0.6
Country of birth  0.03
 Australia397 (78.3)206 (70.3) 
 Asia45 (8.9)26 (8.9) 
 Pacifica25 (4.9)23 (7.8) 
 Other (Africa, Americas, Europe)40 (7.9)38 (13.0) 
Cohort  < 0.001
 1155 (77.5)45 (22.5) 
 2130 (65.0)70 (35.0) 
 3128 (64.0)72 (36.0) 
 494 (47.0)106 (53.0) 
Length of admission (days), median (IQR)7 (10)15 (16)< 0.001
Admissions (last 12 months)  0.003
 None122 (24.0)88 (30.0) 
 One229 (45.2)93 (31.7) 
 Two83 (16.4)58 (19.8) 
  ≥ Three73 (14.4)54 (18.5) 
Primary diagnosis  < 0.001
 Schizophrenia102 (20.1)157 (53.6) 
 Bipolar disorder41 (8.1)52 (17.8) 
 Other psychotic disorder40 (7.9)27 (9.2) 
 Other mood disorder174 (34.3)25 (8.5) 
 Otherb150 (29.6)32 (10.9) 
Substance use disorder189 (37.3)105 (35.8)0.7
ECT treatment during admission9 (1.8)26 (8.9)< 0.001
Previous/current clozapine treatment24 (4.7)37 (12.6)< 0.001
  1. SD Standard Deviation, IQR Interquartile Range; aPacific included New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga, Papua New Guinea; bOther diagnoses included personality disorder, stress reaction, no major mental illness, cognitive/intellectual impairment, alcohol/substance use/abuse