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Table 1 Demographic and biochemical characteristics of individuals in groups of Depression and Anxiety

From: Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and depression and anxiety in the Mashhad Stroke and Heart Atherosclerotic Disorder (MASHAD) Study population

  Depression severity score   Anxiety severity score  
No or minimal N=4452 Mild N=1251 Moderate N=924 Severe N=456 Sig. No or minimal N=3503 Mild N=1904 Moderate N=1026 Severe N=650 Sig.
Sex (female), % (N) 52.60 (2342) 62.60 (783) 65.90 (608) 74.60 (340) <0.001 48.70 (1795) 61.90 (1178) 69.10 (709) 74 (481) <0.001
Age (y) 48.91 ± 7.98 49.12 ± 7.84 48.90 ± 7.99 49.08 ± 7.62 0.832 49.10 ± 7.96 48.76 ± 7.99 49.11 ± 7.74 48.53 ± 7.90 0.209
Education; % (N)
Low (trade school) 53.80 (2395) 51.20 (640) 54.50 (504) 60 (274) 0.013 52.20 (1831) 52.80 (1006) 57 (585) 60.50 (393) <0.001
Moderate (high school) 33 (1469) 36.20 (453) 36.60 (338) 35.40 (161) 0.049 33.80 (11.82) 35.80 (682) 33.10 (339) 33.30 (217) 0.339
High (university) 13.20 (588) 12.60 (158) 8.90 (82) 4.60 (21) <0.001 14 (490) 11.40 (216) 10 (102) 6.20 (40) <0.001
Smoking status; % (N)
Non smoker 71 (3160) 66.90 (838) 62.90 (581) 56.80 (259) <0.001 71.30 (2499) 67.60 (1288) 64.70 (664) 59.20 (385) <0.001
Ex – smoker 10 (445) 10.20 (128) 9.30 (86) 11 (50) 0.791 9.80 (344) 9.90 (188) 10.20 (105) 11.10 (72) 0.790
Current smoker 19 (847) 22.90 (286) 27.80 (257) 32.20 (147) <0.001 18.80 (660) 22.50 (428) 25 (257) 29.70 (193) <0.001
Marital status; % (N)
Married 94 (4186) 93 (1162) 89.90 (831) 87.90 (401) 0.676 94.40 (3304) 92.40 (1759) 91.40 (938) 89.10 (579) 0.514
Single/ divorced/ widow 6 (266) 7 (89) 10.10 (93) 92.10 (55) <0.001 5.60 (199) 7.60 (145) 8.60 (88) 10.90 (71) <0.001
PAL 1.56 ± 0.27 a 1.57 ± 0.27 b 1.59 ± 0.28 c 1.61 ± 0.28 ab 0.001 1.56 ± 0.28 a b c 1.58 ± 0.27 a 1.59 ± 0.26 b 1.61 ± 0.28 c <0.001
Weight (kg) 72.08 ± 12.83 72.33 ± 12.60 71.76 ± 12.74 71.82 ± 13.46 0.745 72.14 ± 12.98 71.85 ± 12.55 72.06 ± 12.75 72.34 ± 12.83 0.812
Height (cm) 161.65 ± 0.09 a b c 160.11 ± 0.09 ad 159.64 ± 0.09 be 158.02 ± 0.09 c d e <0.001 162.15 ± 0.09 a b c 160.30 ± 0.09 a d e 159.12 ± 0.09 b d 158.51 ± 0.08 c e <0.001
BMI (kg/ m²) 27.61 ± 4.54 a b c 28.25 ± 4.63 a 28.22 ± 4.88 b 28.83 ± 5.25 c <0.001 27.45 ± 4.50 a b c 28.01 ± 4.64 a d e 28.53 ± 4.94 b d 28.84 ± 4.90 c e <0.001
WC (cm) 95.43 ± 11.68 95.89 ± 12.18 95.13 ± 12.31 95.75 ± 13.12 0.464 95.34 ± 11.68 95.22 ± 11.95 95.95 ± 12.26 96.35 ± 12.82 0.091
HC (cm) 103.25 ± 8.76 103.97 ± 9.18 103.91 ± 9.51 104.09 ± 9.95 0.013 103.03 ± 8.70 a b 103.49 ± 8.96 c 104.27 ± 9.42 a 105.03 ± 9.98 b c <0.001
WHR 0.92 ± 0.07 a 0.92 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.08 a 0.92 ± 0.08 0.013 0.92 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.08 0.011
Diabetes; % (N) 8.76 (390) 9.67 (121) 8.76 (81) 10.74 (49) 0.439 8.40 (3503) 9.93 (189) 7.90 (81) 11.85 (77) 0.009
Hypertension; % (N) 25.90 (1152) 24.10 (301) 24 (222) 21.05 (96) 0.086 26.21 (918) 22.79 (434) 24.70 (253) 25.54 (166) 0.048
Dyslipidemia; % (N) 85.60 (3810) 88.33 (1105) 89.70 (829) 92.54 (422) <0.001 85.13 (2982) 88.13 (1678) 90.35 (927) 89.08 (579) <0.001
FBG (mg/dl) 91.60 ± 37.24 92.35 ± 39.71 92.51 ± 41.99 94.36 ± 42.88 0.488 91.06 ± 36.90 a 92.92 ± 38.48 91.02 ± 39.22 b 96.20 ± 46.98 a b 0.010
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 191.28 ± 39.30 192.42 ± 38.79 191.10 ± 38.08 191.26 ± 37.48 0.815 190.75± 39.09 192.38 ± 8.19 193.05 ± 40.09 190.05 ± 38.34 0.189
TG (mg/dl) 122 (85, 175) 125 (86, 180) 124 (89.25, 176) 119 (89.75, 172) 0.214 121 (85, 173) 124 (87, 179) 124 (89, 179) 122.50 (87, 174.25) 0.144
LDL-C(mg/dl) 118.92 ± 34.66 119.08 ± 34.27 117.71 ± 35.22 118.34 ± 34.86 0.775 118.66 ± 34.32 119.13 ± 33.98 119.49 ± 37.11 117.02 ± 34.67 0.509
HDL-C (mg/dl) 41.93 ± 9.54 41.80 ± 9.49 41.43 ± 9.16 41.26 ± 9.29 0.294 41.87 ± 9.58 41.74 ± 9.43 41.71 ± 9.48 41.70 ± 9.93 0.937
Serum hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.43 (0.91, 2.92) a b 1.65 (0.94, .21) 1.60 (0.94, 3.71) a 1.71 (1, 3.85) b <0.001 1.40 (0.90, 2.80) a b c 1.59 (0.95, 3.35) a 1.58 (0.96, 3.39) b 1.74 (1.01, 3.94) c <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: PAL physical activity level, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, HC hip circumference, WHR waist – to- hip ratio, FBG fasting blood glucose, TG triglyceride, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein
  2. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation and median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and as percentage (number) for categorical variables. Independent sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and post-hoc pairwise comparisons are used where appropriate
  3. Two groups in a row with similar alphabets had a significant difference (P < 0.05)