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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios of having severe depression or anxiety symptoms associated with DII among men and women

From: Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and depression and anxiety in the Mashhad Stroke and Heart Atherosclerotic Disorder (MASHAD) Study population

Gender DII (Q1 = reference group) Depression severity risk (minimal depression quartile as the reference group)
Reference group and mildly affected group Reference group and moderately affected group Reference group and severely affected group
OR 95% CI Sig. OR 95% CI Sig. OR 95% CI Sig.
Male Q2 0.74 0.55–1 0.051 0.81 0.57–1.16 0.254 1.27 0.74–2.15 0.381
Q3 0.87 0.66–1.15 0.335 1.14 0.82–1.57 0.441 0.97 0.56–1.68 0.922
Q4 1.15 0.87–1.53 0.323 1.22 0.86–1.72 0.260 1.11 0.63–1.96 0.723
Female Q2 0.92 0.77–1.10 0.369 0.91 0.74–1.11 0.356 1.23 0.92–1.64 0.171
Q3 1.02 0.85–1.22 0.849 1.07 0.87–1.31 0.534 1.41 1.06–1.88 0.019
Q4 1.16 0.98–1.39 0.089 1.12 0.92–1.37 0.257 1.37 1.03–1.83 0.032
Gender DII (Q1 = reference group) Anxiety severity risk (minimal anxiety quartile as the reference group)
Reference group and mildly affected group Reference group and moderately affected group Reference group and severely affected group
OR 95% CI Sig. OR 95% CI Sig. OR 95% CI Sig.
Male Q2 1.24 0.97–1.58 0.091 0.91 0.64–1.29 0.601 0.88 0.56–1.38 0.585
Q3 1.20 0.94–1.53 0.144 1.15 0.83–1.59 0.400 0.67 0.42–1.07 0.093
Q 4 1.22 0.94–1.59 0.127 1.09 0.76–1.55 0.647 1.21 0.78–1.87 0.400
Female Q2 1.06 0.86–1.32 0.579 1.04 0.81–1.33 0.772 1.20 0.89–1.62 0.234
Q3 1.06 0.85–1.32 0.603 0.96 0.74–1.24 0.731 1.07 0.78–1.47 0.657
Q4 1.08 0.88–1.33 0.471 0.95 0.74–1.22 0.705 1.33 1–1.78 0.052
  1. Abbreviations: Q quartile, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. ORs were adjusted for age (35–44, 45.54 and 55–65), body mass index, smoking status, education level, marital status, physical activity level, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and dyslipidemia