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Table 2 Depressive symptom severity by characteristics of the study population, ENDES 2017

From: Disability and severe depression among Peruvian older adults: analysis of the Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey, ENDES 2017

Variables Depression levels p
No significant Mild Moderate Severea  
n = 5609 n = 1603 n = 578 n = 471
Sex      < 0.001
 Male 2979 (77.0%) 575 (14.9%) 170 (4.40%) 144 (3.72%)  
 Female 2630 (59.9%) 1028 (23.4%) 408 (9.29%) 327 (7.44%)  
Age group      < 0.001
 50–59 2434 (71.1%) 608 (17.8%) 223 (6.52%) 156 (4.56%)  
 60–69 1716 (69.3%) 489 (19.7%) 157 (6.34%) 114 (4.60%)  
  ≥ 70 1459 (61.7%) 506 (21.4%) 198 (8.38%) 201 (8.50%)  
Education level      < 0.001
 No one 662 (51.2%) 338 (26.1%) 148 (11.4%) 146 (11.3%)  
 Primary 2348 (64.3%) 797 (21.8%) 267 (7.31%) 242 (6.62%)  
 Secondary 1464 (74.9%) 320 (16.4%) 111 (5.68%) 60 (3.07%)  
 Superior 1135 (83.6%) 148 (10.9%) 52 (3.83%) 23 (1.69%)  
Geographical Region      0.001
 Lima Metropolitan area 622 (78.0%) 112 (14.1%) 46 (5.77%) 17 (2.13%)  
 Rest of the coastline 1759 (76.8%) 350 (15.3%) 112 (4.89%) 69 (3.01%)  
 Highlands 1948 (57.1%) 835 (24.5%) 318 (9.33%) 308 (9.03%)  
 Jungle 1280 (72.5%) 306 (17.3%) 102 (5.78%) 77 (4.36%)  
Wealth index      < 0.001
 Very poor 1839 (58.8%) 748 (23.9%) 284 (9.08%) 256 (8.19%)  
 Poor 1123 (65.9%) 338 (19.8%) 131 (7.68%) 113 (6.63%)  
 Medium 956 (72.3%) 243 (18.4%) 66 (4.99%) 58 (4.38%)  
 High 875 (76.4%) 174 (15.2%) 65 (5.67%) 32 (2.79%)  
 Very high 816 (85.0%) 100 (10.4%) 32 (3.33%) 12 (1.25%)  
Hypertension      < 0.001
 No 4578 (70.2%) 1203 (18.5%) 421 (6.46%) 317 (4.86%)  
 Yes 1031 (59.2%) 400 (23.0%) 157 (9.01%) 154 (8.84%)  
Diabetes Mellitus      0.136
 No 5233 (68.2%) 1476 (19.2%) 534 (6.96%) 429 (5.59%)  
 Yes 376 (63.8%) 127 (21.6%) 44 (7.47%) 42 (7.13%)  
Daily smoking      0.002
 No 5463 (67.6%) 1577 (19.5%) 569 (7.04%) 469 (5.81%)  
 Yes 146 (79.8%) 26 (14.2%) 9 (4.92%) 2 (1.09%)  
Harmful alcohol consumption      0.008
 No 5597 (68.0%) 1590 (19.3%) 576 (7.00%) 469 (5.70%)  
 Yes 12 (41.4%) 13 (44.8%) 2 (6.90%) 2 (6.90%)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)      < 0.001
 Underweight (< 18.5) 84 (61.3%) 21 (15.3%) 10 (7.30%) 22 (16.1%)  
 Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 1982 (64.7%) 642 (21.0%) 215 (7.02%) 224 (7.31%)  
 Overweight (25–29.9) 2205 (70.1%) 582 (18.5%) 218 (6.93%) 139 (4.42%)  
 Obese (≥30) 1338 (69.8%) 358 (18.7%) 135 (7.04%) 86 (4.49%)  
Disability      < 0.001
 No 5343 (69.1%) 1483 (19.2%) 517 (6.69%) 384 (4.97%)  
 Yes 266 (49.8%) 120 (22.5%) 61 (11.4%) 87 (16.3%)  
  1. aIncluded both moderately severe and severe depression