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Table 2 Potential risk factors of severe overall symptoms at 4-month follow-upa

From: Loneliness as a predictor of outcomes in mental disorders among people who have experienced a mental health crisis: a 4-month prospective study

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coefficient 95% CI p-Valueb Coefficientc 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value
Psychosocial variables
 Loneliness (ULS-8) 0.92 0.66, 1.17 < 0.001 0.77 0.50, 1.05 < 0.001 0.74 0.45, 1.02 < 0.001 0.25 -0.03, 0.53 0.08
 Social network size (2 items from LSNS-6)     −0.37 −0.95, 0.22 0.22 −0.34 −0.95, 0.27 0.27 −0.36 −0.91, 0.19 0.20
 Social capital (HLSSC)     −0.49 − 0.97, − 0.02 0.04 −0.29 − 0.78, 0.20 0.25 − 0.08 − 0.53, 0.36 0.71
Socio-demographic variables
 Born in the UK        1.78 −1.32, 4.89 0.26 2.59 − 0.20, 5.39 0.07
 Independent accommodation        −2.92 −7.70, 1.87 0.23 −0.15 −4.50, 4.19 0.95
Employment
 No        reference      
 In voluntary, protected or sheltered work        −0.85 −5.29, 3.60 0.71 0.21 −3.78, 4.21 0.92
 In regular employment        −3.81 −6.79, −0.82 0.01 −2.65 −5.35, 0.05 0.06
Living with a partner or with family        −0.61 −3.36, 2.13 0.66 −0.38 −2.86, 2.10 0.76
Psychiatric variables
Number of years since first contact with mental health services
 Less than 3 months        reference      
 3 months – 1 year        −2.93 −8.03, 2.18 0.26 − 2.13 −6.71, 2.45 0.36
 1–2 years        0.59 −5.28, 6.46 0.84 2.31 −2.97, 7.59 0.39
 2–10 years        1.62 −2.26, 5.50 0.41 1.50 −1.98, 4.98 0.40
 More than 10 years        0.63 −3.50, 4.77 0.76 −0.07 −3.80, 3.65 0.97
Diagnosis
 Psychosis        reference      
 Bipolar affective disorder/Manic episode        −0.43 −4.47, 3.62 0.84 0.29 −3.34, 3.93 0.87
 Depressive/Anxiety disorders        0.05 −3.49, 3.58 0.98 0.51 −2.66, 3.68 0.75
 Personality disorders        2.13 −2.26, 6.53 0.34 1.11 −2.87, 5.10 0.58
 Other disorders        −2.99 −8.10, 2.12 0.25 −2.75 −7.33, 1.84 0.24
Overall symptoms at baseline (BPRS)           0.49 0.38, 0.61 < 0.001
R2adj 0.138 0.149 0.181 0.344
  1. CI Confidence Interval, ULS-8 UCLA Loneliness Scale-8, LSNS-6 Lubben Social Network Scale-6, HLSSC Health and Lifestyles Survey Social Capital Questionnaire, BPRS Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, R2adj adjusted-R2
  2. aUsing multivariable linear regression analyses with overall symptom severity score at 4-month follow-up as dependent variable and factors with p < 0.25 in both Additional file 1: Tables S2 and S3 as independent variables
  3. bSignificant p-values printed in bold
  4. cNegative regression coefficient = less severe overall symptoms