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Table 5 Potential risk factors of poor health-related quality of life at 4-month follow-upa

From: Loneliness as a predictor of outcomes in mental disorders among people who have experienced a mental health crisis: a 4-month prospective study

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coefficientb 95% CI p-Valuec Coefficient 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value Coefficient 95% CI p-Value
Psychosocial variables
Loneliness (ULS-8) −1.69 − 2.16, − 1.23 < 0.001 −1.38 − 1.88, − 0.87 < 0.001 −1.27 − 1.79, − 0.75 < 0.001 − 0.76 −1.31, − 0.20 0.01
Social network size (2 items from LSNS-6)     1.04 −0.02, 2.10 0.06 1.27 0.16, 2.38 0.03 1.23 0.15, 2.30 0.03
Social capital (HLSSC)     0.80 −0.05, 1.65 0.07 0.63 −0.25, 1.52 0.16 0.39 −0.47, 1.25 0.37
Socio-demographic variables
Born in the UK        −3.28 −8.92, 2.37 0.25 −3.42 − 8.91, 2.07 0.22
Employment
 No        reference      
 In voluntary, protected or sheltered work        1.97 −6.21, 10.15 0.64 −0.30 −8.30, 7.70 0.94
 In regular employment        2.49 −2.98, 7.96 0.37 2.09 −3.25, 7.43 0.44
Living with a partner or with family        −0.03 −4.93, 4.88 0.99 −0.31 −5.07, 4.45 0.90
Psychiatric variables
Number of years since first contact with mental health services
 Less than 3 months        reference      
 3 months – 1 year        6.23 −3.03, 15.49 0.19 6.33 −2.64, 15.31 0.17
 1–2 years        −10.15 −20.62, 0.31 0.06 −10.21 −20.36, −0.06 0.049
 2–10 years        −8.79 −15.87, −1.70 0.02 −9.01 −15.90, −2.13 0.01
 More than 10 years        −6.68 −14.15, 0.78 0.08 −6.43 −13.66, 0.81 0.08
Diagnosis
 Psychosis        reference      
 Bipolar affective disorder/Manic episode        −0.07 −7.35, 7.22 0.99 1.80 −5.33, 8.92 0.62
 Depressive/Anxiety disorders        −2.23 −8.60, 4.14 0.49 −0.58 −6.82, 5.67 0.86
 Personality disorders        0.65 −7.23, 8.54 0.87 3.02 −4.70, 10.74 0.44
 Other disorders        9.08 −0.11, 18.27 0.05 10.18 1.25, 19.11 0.03
Health-related quality of life at baseline (EQ VAS)           0.24 0.13, 0.35 < 0.001
R2adj 0.143 0.158 0.207 0.256
  1. CI Confidence Interval, ULS-8 UCLA Loneliness Scale-8, LSNS-6 Lubben Social Network Scale-6, HLSSC Health and Lifestyles Survey Social Capital Questionnaire, EQ VAS EuroQol Health Questionnaire visual analogue scale, R2adj adjusted-R2
  2. aUsing multivariable linear regression analyses with health-related quality of life score at 4-month follow-up as dependent variable and factors with p < 0.25 in both Additional file 1: Tables S2 and S3 as independent variables
  3. bNegative regression coefficient = poorer health-related quality of life
  4. cSignificant p-values printed in bold