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Table 2 Lifestyle characteristics, chronic conditions and status of depressive symptoms among participants

From: Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, multi-morbid conditions and depressive symptoms among Nepalese older adults

 Total (n = 794)%Depressive symptoms
No (n = 351)%Yes (n = 443)%p-value
Smoking habit
 Never smoker300(37.78)151(50.33)149(49.67)0.007
 Having smoking history494(62.22)200(40.49)294(59.51) 
Tobacco chewing habit
 Never tobacco chewer411(51.67)186(45.26)225(54.74)0.538
 Having tobacco chewing history383(48.24)165(43.08)218(56.92) 
Alcohol drinking habit
 Never drinker504(63.48)220(43.65)284(56.35)0.678
 Having alcohol drinking history290(36.52)131(45.17)159(54.83) 
Physical activity
 No physical exercise at all612(77.08)255(41.67)357(58.33)0.008
 Daily physical exercise182(22.92)96(52.75)86(47.25) 
Osteoarthritis
 No463(58.31)241(52.05)222(47.95)< 0.001
 Yes331(41.69)110(33.23)221(66.77) 
CVD
 No775(97.61)348(44.90)427(55.10)0.012
 Yes19(2.39)3(15.79)16(84.21) 
Diabetes
 No752(94.71)333(44.28)419(55.72)0.856
 Yes42(5.29)18(42.86)24(57.14) 
COPD
 No678(85.39)318(46.90)360(53.10)< 0.001
 Yes116(14.61)33(28.45)83(71.55) 
2Multiple morbidities
 No678(85.39)318(46.90)360(53.10)< 0.001
 Yes116(14.61)33(28.45)83(71.55) 
  1. 1Others denotes widow/widower/divorced/separated/unmarried. 2Suffering from at least two chronic illnesses of osteoarthritis, CVD, diabetes and COPD