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Table 3 Multiple logistic regression model of the determinants of DS

From: Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, multi-morbid conditions and depressive symptoms among Nepalese older adults

 CrudeAdjusteda
ORp-value95% CIORp-value95% CI
Age group (in years)
 60–691.00  1.00  
 70–791.090.7090.69–1.700.910.7040.55–1.50
  > = 801.760.0281.06–2.931.380.2290.82–2.33
Gender
 Male1.00     
 Female1.700.0001.37–2.111.610.0001.25–2.09
District
Morang1.00  1.00  
Sunsari1.590.2200.80–3.311.070.8910.43–2.67
Religion
 Hinduism1.00  1.00  
 Buddhism1.780.0001.60–1.981.950.0001.58–2.42
 Islam1.130.4990.79–1.621.010.9680.55–1.87
 Christianity0.920.6230.67–1.271.220.1980.90–1.65
Ethnicity
Brahmin/Chettri/Thakur1.00  1.00  
Aadiwasi/Janjatis1.850.0580.98–3.491.800.1310.84–3.85
Dalit2.800.0021.47–5.352.600.0161.19–5.65
Madheshi and other ethnic groups2.040.0051.23–3.371.820.1270.84–3.93
Marital status
 Married1.00  1.00  
1Others1.630.0011.24–2.151.160.1510.95–1.41
Literacy
 Literate1.00  1.00  
 Illiterate1.670.0411.02–2.721.380.1760.86–2.21
Occupation
 Employed1.00  1.00  
 Unemployed2.280.0001.76–2.972.050.0001.47–2.87
2Income
 Nrs. >  10,0001.00  1.00  
 Nrs. 5000 < = 10,0001.710.0141.11–2.621.770.0251.07–2.92
 Nrs. <= 50001.430.0361.02–2.011.410.0770.96–2.08
Smoking habit
 Never tobacco user1.00  1.00  
 Having tobacco use history1.390.0401.02–1.921.490.0471.01–2.20
Tobacco chewing habit
 Never tobacco chewer1.00  Not taken in the model
 Having tobacco chewing history0.940.6400.74–1.20   
Alcohol drinking habit
 Never drinker1.00  Not taken in the model
 Having alcohol drinking history0.940.5960.77–1.17   
Physical activity
 No physical exercise at all1.00  1.00  
 Daily physical exercise1.480.2340.78–2.820.960.8940.53–1.73
Multi-morbidity
 No1.00  1.00  
 Yes1.730.0091.14–2.611.670.0181.09–2.55
  1. Significant p-values are bolded. 2Others denotes widow/widower/divorced/separated/unmarried. 2100 Nrs approximates 1 US Dollar. Abbreviation: CVD Cardiovascular disease, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease