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Table 2 The neuropsychological test battery

From: Case report: cognitive performance in an extreme case of anorexia nervosa with a body mass index of 7.7

Instrument Variables Description Higher/lower scores indicating improvement Reliability
Wechsler Memory Scale III (WMS-III)1 Logical memory I Task: History recitation Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.88a
Adequate test – retest: 0.77b
SEM: 1.04a
Sdiff: 1.47
Logical Memory II Task: Delayed history recitation Higher Low internal consistency:
0.84a
Adequate test – retest: 0.77b
SEM: 1.20a
Sdiff: 1.70
Verbal Paired Associates I Task: Word pairing Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.95a
Adequate test – retest: 0.77b
SEM: 0.67a
Sdiff: 0.95
Verbal Paired Associates II Task: Delayed word pairing Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.88a
Adequate test – retest: 0.73b
SEM: 1.04a
Sdiff: 1.47
Faces I Task: Face recognition among other faces Higher Low internal consistency:
0.77a
Low test – retest: 0.64b
SEM: 1.44a
Sdiff: 2.04
Faces II Task: Delayed face recognition Higher Low internal consistency: 0.83a
Low test – retest: 0.58b
SEM: 1.24a
Sdiff: 1.75
Family Pictures I Task: Picture recall Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.86a
Low test – retest: 0.61b
SEM: 1.12a
Sdiff: 1.58
Family Pictures II Task: Delayed picture recall Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.85a
Low test – retest: 0.67b
SEM: 1.16a
Sdiff: 1.64
Letter-Number Sequencing Task: Recall and ordering letters and numbers Higher Low internal consistency:
0.75a
Low test – retest: 0.61b
SEM: 1.50a
Sdiff: 2.12
Spatial Span Task: Visual pointing recall Higher Low internal consistency:
0.82a
Low test – retest: 0.65b
SEM: 1.27a
Sdiff: 1.80
Auditory Immediate Index Index: Measuring auditory immediate memory Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.93a
Adequate test – retest: 0.84b
SEM: 3.97a
Sdiff: 5.61
Auditory Delayed Index Index: Measuring auditory delayed memory Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.90a
Adequate test – retest: 0.82b
SEM: 4.74a
Sdiff: 6.70
Visual Immediate Index Index: Measuring visual immediate memory Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.85a
Adequate test – retest: 0.74b
SEM: 5.81a
Sdiff: 8.22
Visual Delayed Index Index: Measuring visual delayed memory Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.87a
Adequate test – retest: 0.74b
SEM: 5.41a
Sdiff: 7.65
Immediate Memory index Index: Measuring immediate memory Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.92a
Adequate test – retest: 0.84b
SEM: 4.24a
Sdiff: 3.17
Auditory Recognition Delayed Index Index: Measuring recognition Higher Low internal consistency:
0.74a
Low test – retest: 0.60b
SEM: 7.65a
Sdiff: 10.82
General Memory Index Index: A global measure of delayed memory Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.93a
Adequate test – retest: 0.87b
SEM: 3.97a
Sdiff: 5.61
Working Memory Index Index: Measuring working memory Higher Adequate internal consistency: 0.85a
Adequate test – retest: 0.70b
SEM: 5.81a
Sdiff: 8.22
Processing Speed Index (PSI) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV)2 Symbol Search Task: Search for symbols in rows of symbols Higher Low internal consistency: 0.73a
Adequate test – retest: 0.75c
SEM: 1.56a
Sdiff: 2.21
Symbol Search errors Lower
Coding Task: Write correct symbols under numbers Higher Internal consistency: 0.84a
Adequate test – retest: 0.83c
SEM: 1.20a
Sdiff: 1.70
Coding errors Lower
Processing Speed Index Index: Measuring processing speed (and attention) Higher Adequate internal consistency:
0.87a
Adequate test – retest: 0.87c
SEM: 5.41a
Sdiff: 7.65
d2-R Test of Attention – Revised3 Processed Targets Task: Search for d’s with marks in rows of letters with marks Higher
Errors Lower
Accuracy (% errors) Lower
Corrected total score Measuring attention, (and processing speed and response inhibition) Higher High test – retest: 0.87
SEM: 40.1d
Sdiff: 56.71
Concentration Performance Measuring concentration Higher High test – retest: 0.91
SEM: 17.6d
Sdiff: 24.89
Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)4:  
Verbal Fluency Test Condition 1: Phonemic/ Letter Fluency Task: Words with specific first letter
Measuring word fluency
Higher High internal consistency: 0.90e
Moderate test – retest: 0.76f
SEM: 0.97e
Sdiff: 1.37
Condition 2: Semantic/ Category Fluency Task: Animals and boy’s names
Measuring word fluency
Higher Moderate internal consistency: 0.76e
Good test – retest: 0.81f
SEM: 1.48e
Sdiff: 2.09
Condition 3: Category Switching Task: Switch between furniture and fruits
Measuring cognitive flexibility
Higher Moderate internal consistency: 0.68e
Low test – retest: 0.49f
SEM: 1.71e
Sdiff: 2.42
Repetition Errors Lower
Category Errors Lower
Design Fluency Test Condition 1: Filled Dot Task: Draw different designs
Measuring design fluency
Higher Moderate test – retest: 0.62f
SEM: 1.94g
Sdiff: 2.74
Condition 2: Empty Dots Only Task: Draw different designs without the use of filled dots
Measuring design fluency and response inhibition
Higher Moderate test – retest: 0.73f
SEM: 1.98g
Sdiff: 2.80
Condition 3: Switching Task: Switch between filled and empty dots
Measuring cognitive flexibility
Higher Low test – retest: 0.22f
SEM: 2.47g
Sdiff: 3.49
Repetition Errors Lower
Category Errors Lower
Trail Making Test Condition 1: Visual search Task: Cross 3’s among numbers and letters
Measuring attention, and processing speed
Lower Low test – retest: 0.55f
Condition 2: Numbers Task: Draw line between numbers in order among numbers and letters
Measuring attention and processing speed
Lower Low test – retest: 0.54f
Condition 3: Letters Task: Draw line between letters in order among numbers and letters
Measuring attention and processing speed
Lower Low test – retest: 0.48f
Condition 4: Number-Letter Task: Switch between numbers and letters
Measuring cognitive flexibility
Lower Low test – retest: 0.36f
Condition 4 Errors Lower
Condition 5: Motor Speed Lower Moderate test – retest: 0.73f
Combined Number + Letter Sequencing Lower Moderate internal consistency: 0.78e
Moderate test – retest: 0.64f
SEM: 1.41g
Sdiff: 1.99
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Revised and Expanded (WCST)5 Trials Administered Task: Matching cards to key cards based on color, form, or number Lower
Correct trials Higher
Errors Lower Generalizability coefficient: 0.71
SEM: 8.08
Perseverative Responses Measuring cognitive inflexibility Lower Generalizability coefficient: 0.53
SEM: 10.28
Perseverative Errors Measuring cognitive inflexibility Lower Generalizability coefficient: 0.52
SEM: 10.39
Non-perseverative Errors Lower Generalizability coefficient: 0.72
SEM: 7.94
Conceptual Level Responses Higher
Categories Completed Higher
Failure to Maintain Set Lower
  1. 1 Information from WAIS-III WMS-III Technical Manual (2002), re-test interval WMS-III = 35.6 days; 2 Information from WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretive Manual (2008), re-test interval WAIS-IV = 22 days; 3 Information from d2 Test of Attention in Danish d2-testen – en vurdering af opmærksomhed of koncentration (2006), re-test interval d2 test = 8–9 weeks; 4 Information from D-KEFS Technical Manual (2001), re-test interval D-KEFS = 25 days; 5 Information from Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual – Revised and Expanded (1993), re-test interval WCST = 32.61 days
  2. SEM Standard errors of measurement (reported in scaled-score units for subtests (for WMS-III, WAIS_IV, and D-KEFS), in index units for index scores (for WMS and WAIS), and in total score units (for d2 test and WCST))
  3. Sdiff Estimated standard error of the difference scores (calculated based on Iverson and Grant (2001))
  4. a Reported in relation to age 35–44 years; b Reported in relation to age 16–54 years; c Reported in relation to age 30–54 years; d Reported for whole sample 20–60 years; e Reported in relation to age 30–39 years; f Reported in relation to age 20–49 years; g Reported for whole sample 8–89 years