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Table 2 Differences of internet gaming addiction risk and biological indicators according to the gaming reasons (N = 225)

From: Relationships of internet gaming reasons to biological indicators and risk of internet gaming addiction in Korean adolescent male game users

   Internet gaming reasons   
   Entertainment Friendship Stress relief Habitual gaming   
Variables χ2/F p
   (n = 65) (n = 77) (n = 30) (n = 53)   
   n (%) / M ± SD n (%) M ± SD n (%) M ± SD n (%) M ± SD   
Age (years)   16.60 ± 1.04 16.71 ± 1.04 16.50 ± 082 16.58 ± 1.12 0.377 .770
Smoking cigarettes No (n = 167) 47 (28.1) 62 (37.1) 24 (14.4) 34 (20.4) 5.054 .168
Yes (n = 58) 18 (31.0) 15 (25.9) 6 (10.3) 19 (32.8)
Drinking alcohol No (n = 169) 53 (31.4) 60 (35.5) 22 (13.0) 34 (20.1) 5.218 .156
Yes (n = 56) 12 (21.4) 17 (30.4) 8 (14.3) 19 (33.9)
Sleep time (hours per day) ≤ 6 (n = 147) 43 (29.3) 45 (30.6) 25 (17.0) 34 (23.1) 5.958 .114
>  6 (n = 78) 22 (28.2) 32 (41.0) 5 (6.4) 19 (24.4)
Internet gaming time (minutes per day) 162.92 ± 129.79 161.17 ± 123.26 139.67 ± 76.36 233.21 ± 150.66 4.958 .002
 > 
Duration of internet gaming (years) 7.48 ± 2.56 7.14 ± 2.54 6.93 ± 2.21 7.38 ± 2.21 0.454 .715
IGA score 31.88 ± 11.17 36.21 ± 10.82 38.57 ± 13.29 42.85 ± 11.90 9.120 <.001
 > 
NE (pg/ml) 416.29 ± 280.69 391.78 ± 243.53 348.53 ± 195.26 297.02 ± 157.66 2.909 .035
 < 
Cortisol (μg/dl) 2.24 ± 0.42 2.24 ± 0.41 2.36 ± 0.49 2.25 ± 0.49 0.606 .612
  1. Notes: n = number, M: mean, SD: standard deviation, IGA: internet gaming addiction, NE: norepinephrine
  2. Scheffe test