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Table 1 Summary characteristics of studies included in the systematic review (n = 27)

From: Effects of parenting interventions on child and caregiver cortisol levels: systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics Number of studies (%)
Year of publication
 2000–2009 7 (25.9)
 2010–2019 20 (74.1)
Country
 United States 20 (74.1)
 Netherlands 3 (11.1)
 Argentina 1 (3.7)
 Canada 1 (3.7)
 Iran 1 (3.7)
 Switzerland 1 (3.7)
Sample size
  < 100 14 (51.9)
 100 < n < 150 9 (33.3)
  ≥ 150 4 (14.8)
Children’s mean age at baseline
  < 1 year 4 (14.8)
  ≥ 1 year and < 5 years 18 (66.7)
  ≥ 5 years 5 (18.5)
Type of population
 High-risk familiesa 6 (22.2)
 Foster care/Adopted children 8 (29.7)
 Hospitalized-based 3 (11.1)
 Maltreated children 3 (11.1)
 Caregiver’s death, sick or divorced 4 (14.8)
 General population 3 (11.1)
Cortisol outcome
 Saliva (diurnal) 16 (59.3)
 Saliva (reactivity) 10 (37.0)
 Hair 1 (3.7)
Technique used for biological analysis
 Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) 13 (48.2)
 Radioimunoassay 3 (11.1)
 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 3 (11.1)
 Other techniques 4 (14.8)
 Not described 4 (14.8)
Cortisol intraassay < 10%
 Yes 19 (70.4)
 No 0 (0.0)
 Not described 8 (29.6)
Cortisol interassay < 10%
 Yes 15 (55.6)
 No 3 (11.1)
 Not described 9 (33.3)
  1. aChildren from poor families, or with depressed mothers, or mothers that abuse of illegal substances, or in the Child Protective Service records, or sibling of an adjudicated youth