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Table 2 Characteristics of individual studies included in the systematic review

From: Effects of parenting interventions on child and caregiver cortisol levels: systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Country Sample size (I:C) Frequency and duration of intervention Aim of parental intervention Cortisol measure Time of measurements Number of measurements Jadad Score
Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ et al. (2008) [29] b Netherlands 130
(66:64)
6 monthly sessions (1 h30 each) To stimulate parents’ sensitive interactive skills (focusing on sensitive discipline) to prevent further increase of child externalizing problems Diurnal Wake-up, before lunch and bedtime 3 2
Berlin LJ et al. (2019) [30] United States 153
(76:77)
10 weekly sessions To provide nurturance, to follow the child’s lead with delight and to avoid intrusive and frightening behaviors Reactivity 24% before 10 am, 40% 10 am-1 pm, 36% 1 pm or later) 4 (pre-task, 5 min post-task, 20 min post-task, 40 min post-task) 2
Bernard K et al. (2015) [31]c United States 212
(100:112)
10 weekly sessions (1 h each) To help parents become more synchronous and nurturing, and less frightening, in their interactions with their children Diurnal Wake-up and bedtime 2 2
Bernard K et al. (2015) [32] c United States 101
(56:45)
10 weekly sessions (1 h each) To help parents become more synchronous and nurturing, and less frightening, in their interactions with their children Diurnal Wake-up and bedtime 2 (over 3 days) 2
Bernard K et al. (2015) [33] c United States 115
(54:61)
10 weekly sessions To increase resilience to distress, increase synchronous interactions, and decrease frightening parental behavior Diurnal 30 min after wake-up and bedtime 2 (over 3 days) 3
Borghini A et al. (2009) [34] Switzerland 80
(40:40)
4 to 5 sessions in a 4-month period (1 h30 each) To improve the quality of the parent-baby relationships by helping parents to better understand children and support development Reactivity and diurnal 8 h, 12 h, 14 h, 14 h20, 14 h40, 16 h, 20 h 7 1
Brotman LM et al. (2007) [35] United States 92
(47:45)
22 weekly sessions (90 min individually + 30 min parent-child each) + 10 biweekly sessions (90 min each) + 6 sessions in a 6 to 8-month period To improve parenting practices and preschoolers’ social competence with the goal of preventing later conduct problems Reactivity and diurnal Morning (40%) and afternoon (60%) 2 (pre-task and post-task) + 4 times a week after (7 am, 12 am, 4 pm, 8 pm) 1
Bugental DB et al. (2010) [21]d United States 147
(69:78)
17 sessions in a 1-year period + possible visits in a 3-year period To assist parents to acquire cognitive resources (skills in obtaining information relevant to child development, knowledge about effective ways to manage caregiving challenges and ways to obtain information and make contact with community agencies) Diurnal Mid-morning (10 am) 1 1
Cicchetti D et al. (2011) [36] b United States 91
(56:35)
46 weekly sessions To encourage sensitive interactions by helping parents form positive representations of themselves and the caregiver-child relationship, and to teach parenting skills, relaxation techniques, and behaviors that promote social support Diurnal Mid-morning (10 am) 1 1
DePasquale CE et al. (2018) [37] United States 66
(34:32)
10 weekly sessions To enhance nurturance and synchrony while reducing frightening behavior in at-risk families Reactivity Mid-morning (10 am) 3 (pre-task, 15 min post-test, 30 min post-task) 2
Dozier M et al. (2006) [22] United States 60
(30:30)
10 weekly sessions (1 h each) To help caregivers override their own issues that interfere with providing nurturing care, and provide an environment that helps children develop regulatory capabilities Diurnal Wake-up and bedtime 2 (over 2 days) 1
Dozier M et al. (2008) [38] United States 93
(46:47)
10 weekly sessions (1 h each) To help parents become more synchronous and nurturing, and less frightening, in their interactions with their children Reactivity 3 (pre-task, 15 min post-test, 30 min post-task) 1
Fisher PA et al. (2007) [39] United States 117
(57:60)
6 to 9 months of intensive training (12 h) + daily calls + weekly sessions for children and parents individually To address the developmental and social-emotional needs of foster preschoolers Diurnal 30 min after wake-up and 30 min before bedtime 2 (day 1) + 2 (day 2) for 12 months 1
Fisher PA et al. (2008) [40] b United States 117
(57:60)
6 to 9 months of intensive training (12 h) + Daily calls + weekly sessions for children and parents individually To address the developmental and social-emotional needs of foster preschoolers Diurnal 30 min after wake-up and 30 min before bedtime 2 1
Habersaat S et al. (2014) [41] b Netherlands 60
(30:30)
1 session (60–80 min) + 3 sessions (10 min) To enhance parent’s observation and understanding of the specific competencies of their preterm infant and promoting parents’ sensitivity and responsiveness toward the infant’s behavioral characteristics Diurnal Wake-up (8 h), before meal at noon, afternoon (17 h), before bedtime (20 h) 4 (over 2 days) 2
Letourneau N et al. (2011) [42] Canada 60
(27:33)
12 weekly sessions To teach new mothers about maternal–infant interactions, contingent responsiveness, and to provide support for postpartum depressed mothers Diurnal Wake-up, noon, mid-afternoon, bedtime 4 2
Luecken LJ et al. (2010) [43] United States 139
(78:61)
12 weekly sessions (2 h of interaction + 12 min of discussion) To increase positive caregiver-child relationships, effective discipline, and to decrease children’s exposure to stressful events Reactivity Afternoon/evening (between 3 and 9 pm) 4 (pre-task, post-task, 15 min post-task, 30 min post-task) 1
Luecken LJ et al. (2014) [44] b United States 139
(78:61)
12 weekly sessions (2 h) To increase the positive quality of the caregiver-child relationship, enhance caregivers’ use of effective discipline, decrease caregiver mental health problems, decrease children’s exposure to stressful events, improve youth coping skills, and to promote adaptive beliefs about why negative events occur Reactivity Pre-task, post-task, 15 min post-task, 30 min post-task 4 2
Luecken LJ et al. (2015) [45] United States 240
(164:76)
11 group sessions and 2 individual sessions in a 15-year period (1 h45) To improve mother–child relationship quality and effective discipline, to decrease barriers between the mother and child, and to decrease interparental conflict Reactivity Morning and evening 4 (pre-task, post-task, 20 min post-task, 40 min post-task) 2
Nelson EM et al. (2013) [46] United States 54 (not described) 10 weekly sessions (1.5 h) To build caregiver’s confidence and competence in sensitivity, to have developmentally-appropriate expectations, and reframe caregiver’s understanding and responses to children’s ambiguous cues and difficult behavior Reactivity On arrival, before task, 30 min post-task, 45 min post-task, next morning 30 min after wake-up 5 2
O’Neal CR et al. (2010) [47] United States 92
(47:45)
22 sessions for parents + 22 sessions for preschoolers + 22 parent-child interactions + 10 home visits To encourage parents to use nonharsh, consistent, and appropriate disciplinary strategies, be less critical, use positive reinforcement and promote children’s social competence Diurnal Majority in the afternoon, but some mid-morning 1 1
Pirnia B et al. (2019) [48] b Iran 50
(22:28)
12 weekly sessions To improve communication in children and to practice interactive discipline in parents Diurnal Not described 3 2
Poehlmann-Tynan J et al. (2019) [49] b United States 39
(25:14)
8 weekly sessions (2 h) To cultivate mindfulness, self-compassion, equanimity and compassion to others, and its applications to parenting 3 cm of hair NA NA 2
Prats LM et al. (2018) [50] Argentina 46
(23:23)
13 weekly sessions (50 min) To promote cognitive development of children through the promotion of parenting practices Diurnal Morning (8 h30 to 9 h) and night 2 2
Toth SL et al. (2015) [28] a United States 157
(44/34:27)
48 weekly sessions Intervention I: to improve the mother–child relationship, through the provision of developmental guidance based on maternal concerns.Intervention II: to improve current concerns about parental education, maternal stress, and social support encouraging mothers to seek further education and employment and enhanced informal social support. Diurnal Mid-morning (as close as 10 am) 1 1
Turpyn CC et al. (2019) [51] b United States 20
(10:10)
8 weekly sessions (2 h) To promote mindfulness intervention, focusing on parenting interactions Reactivity Pre-task, post-task, 15 min post-task, 30 min post-task 4 3
Van Andel H et al. (2016) [52] Netherlands 123
(65:58)
Every 2 weeks in a 3-month period (90 min) To help foster caregivers interpret the interaction with their child Diurnal Wake-up and bedtime 2 2
  1. aThe study has two different interventions and a control group. bStudies that were included in the systematic review only. cThose are not estimates from the same study, they are different papers published in the same year. dThe sample size of the intervention and control groups could not be determined because only the total sample size was reported – based on the total sample size, we estimated the number of individuals in each group using the values of another paper from the same project [53]