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Table 2 Resilience, self-perceived stress and emotional analytics (SAM ratings) in patients and controls

From: Viewing an alpine environment positively affects emotional analytics in patients with somatoform, depressive and anxiety disorders as well as in healthy controls

Variable Group Comparison
Patients (N = 183)
Mean ± SD
Controls (N = 315)
Mean ± SD
Test statistics Effect size, d p-valuea
Resilience (BRS score) 2.78 ± 0.85 ↓ 3.76 ± 0.66 Z = -11.84 −1.33 < 0.001
Stress (PSS score) 9.53 ± 3.61 ↑ 4.73 ± 2.50 Z = -13.47 1.62 < 0.001
SAM Rating
 Neutral pictures
  Valence 5.09 ± 1.06 ↓ 5.65 ± 1.21 Z = -4.696 − 0.48 < 0.001
  Arousal 4.13 ± 1.31 ↑ 3.38 ± 1.23 Z = 5.848 0.60 < 0.001
  Dominance 4.78 ± 1.08 ↓ 5.13 ± 1.35 Z = -2.312 − 0.15 0.021
 Alpine pictures
  Valence 6.99 ± 1.68 ↓ 7.85 ± 1.12 Z = -5.661 −0.64 < 0.001
  Arousal 5.01 ± 1.76 5.17 ± 1.94 Z = -1.218 − 0.09 0.223
  Dominance 5.85 ± 1.52 ↓ 6.42 ± 1.58 Z = -3.655 −0.37 < 0.001
  Attraction 6.62 ± 2.10 ↓ 7.52 ± 1.48 Z = -4.106 −0.52 < 0.001
 Comparison (Alpine>Neutral)
  Valence 1.91 ± 1.80 *** 2.19 ± 1.42 *** Z = -1.466 −0.18 0.143
  Arousal 0.87 ± 2.11 ↓** 1.79 ± 1.91 *** Z = -4.741 −0.46 < 0.001
  Dominance 1.09 ± 1.61 *** 1.29 ± 1.67 *** Z = -1.465 −0.12 0.143
  1. Abbreviations: BRS Brief Resilience Scale 13, PSS Perceived Stress Scale, SAM Self-Assesment Manikin, SD standard deviation
  2. ap-values were calculated using Mann-Whitney U-test
  3. ↑ Significantly higher scores in patients than in healthy controls.
  4. ↓ Significantly lower scores in patients than in healthy controls.
  5. ** Difference “alpine – neutral” significantly greater than 0, Z = 3.25, p < 0.01
  6. *** Difference “alpine – neutral” significantly greater than 0, always Z ≥ 4.5, p < 0.001