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Table 3 Environmental socioeconomic data (ESED): Group differences between cases with voluntary and involuntary hospitalization as determined by independent Student’s t-tests. Purchasing power is given in Euro. All other variables are given in rates (number per 100 inhabitants). A negative T-value indicates a higher mean for involuntary vs. voluntary cases. Degrees of Freedom were adjusted for comparisons where there were statistical differences between the variances of the two groups. For significant findings, effect sizes (Cohen’s d) between the two groups were calculated

From: Identification of risk factors for involuntary psychiatric hospitalization: using environmental socioeconomic data and methods of machine learning to improve prediction

Variable Mean (Standard Deviation) T df p Cohen’s d
Voluntary hospitalization Involuntary hospitalization
Commercial enterprises 8.47 (5.36) 8.48 (5.29) −0.7 5198 0.504
Unemployment 7.77 (3.04) 7.35 (3.09) 4.6 5198 < 0.000 0.137
Employment 69.12 (3. 03) 68.88 (2.95) 2.6 3147 0.009 0.08
Buildings 14.01 (4.98) 14.69 (5.13) −4.5 5198 <.000 0.134
Residential buildings 13.84 (4.94) 14.51 (5.09) −4.5 5198 <.000 0.134
Households 53 (5.97) 53.04 (5.97) −0.2 5198 0.823
Children 13.11 (0.58) 13.14 (0.59) −1.5 5198 0.133
Purchasing power 2,158,123 (281,880) 2,203,469 (314,744) −4.9 2787 <.000 0.152