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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Sex differences in dementia: on the potentially mediating effects of educational attainment and experiences of psychological distress

  All Females Males Sig. for difference
n (%) | M (SD) n (%) | M (SD) n (%) | M (SD) p
Sex 892 (100) 672 (75.3) 220 (24.7)
Age at baseline 74.5 (5.4) 75.9 (5.6) 70.5 (0.2) ***
Presence of APOE ɛ4a 239 (27.8) 176 (27.4) 63 (28.9) n.s.
Educational attainmentb ***
 Primary 529 (60.6) 408 (62.4) 121 (55.3)
 Lower secondary 207 (23.7) 168 (25.7) 39 (17.8)
 Secondary/university 137 (15.7) 78 (11.9) 59 (26.9)
Previous depressionc, * 260 (29.3) 216 (32.3) 44 (20.0) ***
One or more period(s) of longstanding stressd 369 (47.3) 273 (48.3) 96 (44.0) n.s.
Satisfaction w. social situation (1–7)e 2.6 (1.2) 2.7 (1.2) 2.5 (1.1) *
Chronic lonelinessf 106 (12.1) 91 (13.7) 15 (6.8) ***
Self-esteem (1–7)g 3.1 (1.1) 3.3 (1.2) 2.7 (1.0) ***
Developed dementia 2002–12 (t1) 144 (16.1) 124 (18.5) 20 (9.1) ***
Developed dementia 2003–12 (t2) 126 (14.4) 111 (16.8) 15 (7.0) ***
Developed dementia 2004–12 (t3) 108 (12.6) 95 (14.8) 13 (6.1) ***
Developed dementia 2005–12 (t4) 91 (10.9) 78 (10.9) 13 (6.1) **
Developed dementia 2006–12 (t5) 81 (9.8) 70 (11.3) 11 (5.2) **
  1. Note: Total N = 892, * = self-reported. Significance of group differences assed using the Ttwo-sample t-test or Perason’s χ2-test, *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001. aInformation missing for 31 subjects (3.5%). bInformation missing for 19 subjects (2.1%). cInformation missing for 4 subjects (0.4%). dInformation missing for 111 subjects (12.4%). eInformation missing for 52 subjects (5.8%). fInformation missing for 6 subjects (0.7%). gInformation missing for 53 subjects (5.9%)