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Table 4 Differences in costs and effects in the complete sample and per subgroup (€ 2012)

From: Cost-effectiveness of guideline-based stepped and collaborative care versus treatment as usual for patients with depression – a cluster-randomized trial

  Total sample (n = 737) Subgroup: Mild depression (n = 93)
(PHQ-9: 5–9)
Subgroup: Moderate depression (n = 232)
(PHQ-9: 10–14)
Subgroup: Moderately severe depression (n = 271)
(PHQ-9: 15–19)
Subgroup: Severe depression (n = 141)
(PHQ-9: 20–27)
  Mean (€) 95%-CI Mean (€) 95%-CI Mean (€) SE (€)# Mean (€) SE (€)# Mean (€) SE (€)#
Total costs 5016 (−259; 10,290) 9731 (− 3017; 22,478) −628 (−7442; 6186) 6047 (− 3084; 15,178) 14,579* (2785; 26,373)
Healthcare costs 2712 (− 641; 6065) 5966 (− 2568; 14,500) −23 (− 4671; 4625) 3321 (− 1666; 8308) 4324 (− 2982; 11,630)
 Inpatient services 1769 (− 1346; 4884) 3468 (− 3589; 10,526) − 453 (− 4889; 3982) 2487 (− 1737; 6712) 2911 (4202; 10,024)
  Psychiatric hospital −202 (− 1216; 811) 1101 (− 1649; 3851) −660 (− 2334; 1015) 196 (− 1054; 1445) − 1695 (− 5370; 1980)
 Outpatient physician services 467* (126; 808) 723* (134; 1311) 347 (− 120; 815) 832* (338; 1327) 266 (− 365; 896)
  Psychiatrist 95* (37; 153) 84 (−65; 234) 79 (−42; 201) 77 (−31; 185) 123 (−36; 281)
  Psychotherapist 239 (−37; 515) 250 (− 147; 648) 244 (− 207; 696) 242 (−190; 674) 75 (−533; 683)
 Outpatient non-physician services 37 (−59; 132) 46 (−192; 283) −57 (−216; 102) 50 (−97; 197) 51 (−178; 281)
 Drugs −43 (−43; 308) 256 (− 565; 1077) 49 (− 304; 402) −199 (− 894; 497) −67 (− 371; 237)
 Ambulatory care −8 (−47; 30) 32 (−55; 120) 6 (− 123; 136) −24 (− 87; 40) 124 (−279; 528)
 Intervention in step 2 218* (169; 266) 285* (159; 411) 195* (131; 258) 204* (134; 275) 203* (117; 290)
Costs of family support
 Informal care 82 (−567; 732) 543 (− 848; 1933) −162 (− 1135; 811) −72 (− 1092; 947) 434 (− 1583; 2450)
Productivity losses 2238 (− 668; 5145) 2754 (− 3438; 8945) − 279 (− 4304; 3744) 1855 (− 4362; 8072) 10,646* (3627; 17,666)
QALY (EQ-5D: UK-Tarif) 0.008 (−0.030; 0.046) −0.010 (− 0.122; 0.101) 0.028 (− 0.044; 0.100) 0.013 (−0.058; 0.083) 0.007 (− 0.097; 0.111)
  1. *p < .05;