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Table 1 Variables related to needs factors predicting frequency of patient hospitalizations for any medical condition in 2014–15

From: Risk factors of hospitalization for any medical condition among patients with prior emergency department visits for mental health conditions

Characteristics Total
N (%)
No hospitalizations
(0 times)
N (%)
Moderate hospitalizations
(1–2 times)
N (%)
Frequent hospitalizations
(3+ times)
N (%)
p
Overall 11,367 (100) 6424 (56.5) 4192 (36.9) 751 (6.6)  
Needs factors
 Mental disorders (MD) (2012–2014) 7624 (67.1) 4176 (65.0) 2 2931 (69.9) 1 517 (68.8) .00
  Common MD 4569 (40.2) 2484 (38.7) 2 1783 (42.5) 1 302 (40.2) .00
   Depressive disorders 1468 (12.9) 722 (11.2) 2,3 636 (15.2) 1 110 (14.6) 1 .00
   Anxiety disorders 3870 (34.0) 2155 (33.5) 1462 (34.9) 253 (33.7) .36
   Adjustment disorders 3841 (33.8) 2183 (34.0) 1415 (33.8) 243 (32.3) .67
  Serious MD 3004 (26.4) 1480 (23.0) 2,3 1293 (30.8) 1 231 (30.8) 1 .00
   Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders 2144 (18.9) 1074 (16.7) 2,3 905 (21.6) 1 165 (22.0) 1 .00
   Bipolar disorders 1564 (13.8) 764 (11.9) 2,3 683 (16.3) 1 117 (15.6) 1 .00
  Personality disorders 1442 (12.7) 925 (14.4) 2,3 453 (10.8) 1 64 (8.5) 1 .00
  Substance-related disorders (SRD) (drug and alcohol) (2012–2014) 1805 (15.3) 1036 (15.2) 657 (15.5) 112 (14.9) .86
   Alcohol related disorders 1112 (9.8) 562 (8.7) 2 468 (11.2) 1 82 (10.9) .00
   Drug related disorders 1086 (9.6) 678 (10.6) 2,3 357 (8.5) 1 51 (6.8) 1 .00
 Suicidal behaviors in ED visits (2014–2015) 4512 (39.7) 2810 (43.7) 2,3 1456 (34.7) 1 246 (32.8) 1 .00
 Chronic physical illnesses 3547 (31.2) 1471 (22.9) 2,3 1609 (38.4) 1,3 467 (62.2) 1,2 .00
 Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (2012–2014) a      .00
  0 8713 (76.7) 5293 (81.6) 2,3 3049 (72.7) 1,3 425 (56.6) 1,2 .00
  1 1120 (9.9) 617 (9.6) 414 (9.9) 89 (11.9) .00
  2 635 (5.6) 278 (4.3) 2,3 291 (6.9) 1 66 (8.8) 1 .00
  3+ 899 (7.9) 290 (4.5) 2,3 438 (10.4) 1,3 171 (22.8) 1,2 .00
 Co-occurring MD/SRD 2084 (18.3) 726 (11.3) 2,3 1054 (25.1) 1,3 304 (40.5) 1,2 .00
 Co-occurring MD/chronic physical illnesses 3843 (33.8) 1219 (19.0) 2,3 2073 (49.5) 1,3 551 (73.4) 1,2 .00
 Co-occurring SRD/chronic physical illnesses 1047 (9.2) 260 (4.0) 2,3 571 (13.6) 1,3 216 (28.8) 1,2 .00
 Co-occurring MD/SRD/chronic physical illnesses 903 (7.9) 175 (2.7) 2,3 522 (12.5) 1,3 206 (27.4) 1,2 .00
 Illness acuity b      .00
  Levels 1 and 2 (immediate and very urgent) 1173 (10.3) 639 (9.9) 2,3 482 (11.5) 1,3 52 (6.9) 1,2  
  Level 3 (urgent) 2556 (22.5) 1456 (22.7) 3 1003 (23.9) 3 94 (12.5) 1,2  
  Levels 4 and 5 (less urgent and non-urgent) 7638 (67.3) 4326 (67.3) 2,3 2707 (64.6) 1,3 605 (80.6) 1,2  
  1. χ2 Comparisons are produced for each row reporting percentages for categorical variables. Superscript indicates a significant difference at p < .05. For example, the percentage of individuals with MD having no hospitalizations was significantly different than the one having 1–2 hospitalizations. No hospitalizations = column 1, moderate hospitalizations [1, 2]=column 2, and frequent hospitalizations (3+ times) = column 3
  2. aChronic physical illnesses included: chronic pulmonary disease, cardiac arrhythmias, tumor and/or metastasis, renal disease, fluid electrolyte disorders, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, metastatic cancer, dementia, stroke, neurological disorders, liver disease, pulmonary circulation disorders, coagulopathy, weight loss, paralysis, AIDS/HIV
  3. bPatients in the study sample had visited ED at least one time in 2014–15 for mental health conditions. For 0 hospitalizations, illness acuity was calculated considering the average of this data for all ED visits in the index year (2014–15); for 1 hospitalization, in the ED visit leading to this hospitalization; and for 2 and 3+ hospitalizations, the average of these data for the ED visits leading to the 2nd and 3rd hospitalizations