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Table 4 Estimations of regression coefficients and odds ratios from the multinomial logistic regression model for frequency of patient hospitalizations for any medical condition in 2014–2015. The model reference group is non-hospitalized patients

From: Risk factors of hospitalization for any medical condition among patients with prior emergency department visits for mental health conditions

Variables Moderate hospitalizations: 1–2 times (2014–15) Frequent hospitalizations: 3+ times (2014–15)
  Coefficients P-Value OR 95% CI Coefficients P-Value OR 95% CI
Needs factors
 Mental disorders (MD) (2012–2014)
  Depressive disorders .31 .00 1.35 1.17–1.57 .34 .01 1.41 1.08–1.84
  Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders .19 .00 1.21 1.06–1.38 .23 .05 1.26 1.00–1.58
  Bipolar disorders .28 .00 1.32 1.14–1.52 .23 .09 1.25 .96–1.63
  Personality disorders −.41 .00 .66 .57–.77 −.65 .00 .52 .38–.71
  Alcohol related disorders .33 .00 1.39 1.17–1.64 .41 .01 1.50 1.11–2.04
  Drug related disorders −.29 .00 .75 .63–.89 −.43 .02 .65 .46–.93
Suicidal behaviors in emergency department (ED) visits (2014–2015) −.24 .00 .79 .72–.87 −.24 .01 .78 .65–.95
Co-occurring MD/substance related disorders (SRD) .74 .00 2.09 1.85–2.36 1.50 .00 4.45 3.68–5.44
Chronic physical illnesses (2012–2014) .70 .00 2.02 1.82–2.24 1.64 .00 5.15 4.30–6.18
Illness acuity (triage priority levels) a, b         
  Level 3 (urgent) −.15 .09 .86 .72–1.03 .25 .15 1.29 .91–1.81
  Levels 4–5 (less urgent and non-urgent) −.38 .00 .69 .58–.81 −.29 .15 .75 .51–1.11
Predisposing factors (2014–15)
 Age b
  18–24 years .65 .00 1.91 1.52–2.40 .30 .14 1.35 .91–1.99
  25–44 years .52 .00 1.68 1.35–2.08 .17 .38 1.18 .82–1.17
  45–64 years .60 .00 1.81 1.45–2.26 .05 .79 1.05 .72–1.53
  65+ years .74 .00 2.10 1.64–2.69 .16 .47 1.17 .76–1.81
Deprivation Index:
 Social         
  2 −.08 .41 .92 .76–1.12 −.16 .38 .85 .60–1.21
  3 −.08 .36 .92 .78–1.09 .03 .86 1.03 .77–1.38
  4 −.03 .67 .97 .81–1.14 −.14 .36 .86 .64–1.18
  5: Most deprived .04 .65 1.04 .88–1.22 −.15 .30 .86 .64–1.15
 Types of ED b
  Psychiatric ED integrated with a general ED located in a separate site −.14 .03 .87 .76–.99 −.44 .00 .65 .51–.82
  General ED without psychiatric services .03 .70 1.03 .88–1.20 −.25 .01 .78 .58–1.05
  Psychiatric ED merged with general ED .10 .15 1.10 .97–1.26 −.17 .15 .85 .67–1.06
Enabling factors c
 Number of consultations for any medical condition with a general practitioner (GP) in medical clinics b
  1–3 consultations .03 .56 1.03 .93–1.15 −.05 .63 .95 .78–1.16
  4+ consultations −.00 .97 .99 .88–1.13 −.12 .31 .88 .71–1.12
 Number of outpatient psychiatrist consultations b
  1–3 consultations .23 .00 1.26 1.09–1.47 .43 .02 1.54 1.06–2.23
  4–6 consultations .85 .00 2.33 1.92–2.83 1.42 .00 4.13 4.75–6.19
  7+ consultations 2.02 .00 7.52 6.45–8.77 3.18 .00 24.00 17.52–33.00
 Number of physicians consulted in specialized care b
  1–2 physicians 1.06 .00 2.88 2.50–3.30 .82 .00 2.27 1.53–3.37
  3+ physicians 1.20 .00 3.31 2.74–3.99 .59 .00 1.78 1.28–2.53
Prior consultations at ED for any medical condition .99 .00 2.71 2.42–3.04 .25 .00 11.94 8.16–17.47
 Number of interventions in local community service centers b
  1–3 interventions .02 .72 1.03 .90–1.17 .00 .99 .99 .77–1.30
  4+ interventions −.02 .80 .99 88–1.10 .46 .00 1.58 1.30–1.93
  1. aFor 0 hospitalizations, illness acuity was calculated considering the average of this data for all ED visits in the index year (2014–15); for 1 hospitalization, in the ED visit leading to this hospitalization; and for 2 and 3+ hospitalizations, the average of these data for the ED visits leading to the 2nd and 3rd hospitalizations
  2. b Reference groups for independent variables with multiple categories were: level 1 and 2 (immediate and very urgent) for illness acuity; 12–17 years for age category; psychiatric ED without medical services within a MH university institute for type of ED; 0 visits for number of consultations for any medical condition with a general practitioner (GP) in medical clinics, number of outpatient psychiatrist consultations, number of physicians consulted in specialized care, and number of interventions in local community health service centers
  3. cMeasured in the 12 months prior to first ED visit in the index year (2014–2015)