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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population according to the severity of depressive symptoms

From: Prevalence and factors associated with severe depressive symptoms in older west African people living with HIV

Characteristics No severe depressive symptoms Severe depressive symptoms p* TOTAL
N % N % N %
274 (82.1) 60 (17.9) 334 (100.0)
Socio-demographic data
 Age      0.73   
  50–59 180 (65.7) 38 (63.3)   218 (65.3)
  60–69 94 (34.3) 22 (36.7)   116 (34.7)
 Gender      0.05   
  Male 109 (39.8) 32 (53.3)   141 (42.2)
  Female 165 (60.2) 28 (46.7)   193 (57.8)
 Education level      0.13   
  No education 81 (29.6) 10 (16.7)   91 (27.2)
  Primary school 61 (22.3) 17 (28.3)   78 (23.4)
  Secondary school 100 (36.5) 28 (46.7)   128 (38.3)
  University & Tertiary Education 32 (11.6) 5 (8.3)   37 (11.1)
 Marital Status      0.36   
  Married/Cohabitating 125 (45.6) 30 (50.0)   155 (46.4)
  Widowed 93 (34.0) 14 (23.3)   107 (32.0)
  Divorced 20 (7.3) 7 (11.7)   27 (8.1)
  Never married 36 (13.1) 9 (15.0)   45 (13.5)
 Employment status      0.08   
  Currently employed 153 (55.8) 26 (43.3)   179 (53.6)
  Unemployed 70 (25.5) 22 (36.7)   92 (27.5)
  Retired 51 (18.6) 12 (20.0)   63 (18.9)
HIV Clinical data
 Clinical disease stage at ART initiation      0.42   
  A 86 (31.4) 14 (23.3)   100 (29.9)
  B 145 (52.9) 37 (61.7)   182 (54.5)
  C - AIDS 39 (14.2) 9 (15.0)   48 (14.4)
  Unknowm 4 (1.5) . .   4 (1.2)
 Duration of infection (months)      0.08   
  [6–69[ 75 (27.4) 8 (13.3)   83 (24.9)
  [69–108[ 69 (25.2) 14 (23.3)   83 (24.9)
  [108–141[ 65 (23.7) 16 (26.7)   81 (24.3)
   ≥ 141 65 (23.7) 22 (36.7)   87 (26.0)
 Nadir CD4      0.02   
   > 200 106 (38.7) 14 (23.3)   120 (35.9)
   ≤ 200 158 (57.7) 45 (75.0)   203 (60.8)
  Missing 10 (3.6) 1 (1.7)   11 (3.3)
 Most recent CD4      0.38   
   ≥ 500 141 (51.5) 27 (45.0)   168 (50.3)
   < 500 130 (47.4) 32 (53.3)   162 (48.5)
  Missing 3 (1.1) 1 (1.7)   4 (1.2)
 Detectable Viral load 27 (9.9) 16 (26.7) < 0.001 43 (12.9)
  Missing 47 (17.2) 9 (15.0)   56 (16.8)
 Initial ART combinaison      0.11   
  3TC + TDF + EFV 72 (26.3) 10 (16.7)   82 (24.6)
  Other 200 (73.0) 50 (83.3)   250 (74.9)
  Missing 2 (0.7) . .   2 (0.6)
 Actual ART combinaison      0.06   
  3TC + TDF + EFV 151 (55.1) 25 (41.7)   176 (52.7)
  Other 123 (44.9) 35 (58.3)   158 (47.3)
 Adherence to ART (yes) 261 (95.3) 54 (90.0) 0.06† 315 (94.3)
Substance use
 Hazardous drinkers 18 (6.6) 7 (11.7) 0.18 25 (7.5)
 Tobacco use (current/former) 39 (14.2) 18 (30.0) 0.004 57 (17.1)
 Drug consumption 4 (1.5) 2 (3.3) 0.30† 6 (1.8)
Anthropometric and medical data
 Overweight/obesity 114 (41.6) 13 (21.7) 0.004 127 (38.0)
 Comorbidities      0.61   
  None 119 (43.4) 23 (38.3)   142 (42.5)
  One 97 (35.4) 21 (35.0)   118 (35.3)
  More than one 58 (21.2) 16 (26.7)   74 (22.2)
 History of trauma (yes) 18 (6.6) 4 (6.7) 1.0 22 (6.6)
 History of neurological disease (yes) 37 (13.5) 11 (18.3) 0.33 48 (14.4)
Inclusion centers      0.31   
 CePREF, Abidjan 93 (33.9) 15 (25.0)   108 (32.3)
 ITDD, Abidjan 140 (51.1) 37 (61.7)   177 (53.0)
 ITDD, Dakar 41 (15.0) 8 (13.3)   49 (14.7)
  1. Abbreviations: ART antiretroviral therapy, ITDD infectious and tropical disease department
  2. * p-value associated with Chi-2 test
  3. p-value associated with Exact Fisher Test