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Table 3 Bivariate associations assessed between pedestrian crash hospitalization and potential variables investigated in case-control study, East Azerbaijan, Iran

From: Adult ADHD screening scores and hospitalization due to pedestrian injuries: a case-control study

Comparison groups Cases (n = 177) Controls (n = 177) Crude odds ratios (OR) 95% Confidence Interval
Variables N(%)/
Mean (SD)
N(%)/
Mean (SD)
Marital status
 Single (RGa) 41 (23.2) 39 (22.0)   
 Married 136 (76.8) 138 (78.0) 0.93 0.56–1.54
Education level
 Illiterate and elementary (ISCED levels < 2) 89 (50.3) 34 (19.2)   
 Middle school & high school (ISCED levels 2,3 & 4) 68 (38.4) 93 (52.5) 0.27 0.16–0.46
 Associate degree (ISCED level 5) 15 (8.5) 19 (10.7) 0.30 0.13–0.66
 Bachelor and master degrees (ISCED levels 6 & 7) 5 (2.8) 31 (17.5) 0.06 0.02–0.17
Job
 Farmer (RG) 10 (5.6) 9 (5.1)   
 Worker 39 (22.0) 13 (7.3) 2.7 0.90–8.09
 Self-employed 128 (72.3) 155 (87.6) 0.74 0.29–1.88
Average walking time during day light (hours) 2.91 (2.24) 1.86 (1.79) 1.31 1.16–1.47
Average walking at night (hours) 0.31 (0.64) 0.18 (0.47) 1.57 1.03–2.39
Self-rated expenditure capacity 12.8 (3.5) 9.98 (4.1) 0.82 0.78–0.88
Household income
  < 161USD (RG) 78 (44.3) 28 (15.8)   
 161–321 USD 80 (45.5) 88 (49.7) 0.32 0.19–0.55
 321–482 USD 12 (6.8) 39 (22.0) 0.11 0.05–0.24
 482 > USD 6 (3.4) 22 (12.4) 0.09 0.03–0.26
 Age 40.05 (14.21) 39.34 (13.54) 1.003 0.98–1.01
Smoking
 None-smoking (RG) 106 (59.9) 136 (76.8)   
 5–9 per days 48 (27.1) 23 (13.0) 2.67 1.53–4.67
 10–15 per days 23 (13.0) 18 (10.2) 1.63 0.84–3.19
ADHD subscalesb
 Attention deficit subscale 5.58 (3.87) 4.87 (3.62) 1.05 0.99–1.11
 Hyperactivity-impulsivity subscale 7.83 (3.84) 6.75 (3.58) 1.08 1.02–1.14
 ADHD index 9.58 (5.12) 8.43 (4.63) 1.04 1.004–1.09
Psychiatric referral history
 No (RG) 170 (96.0) 168 (94.9)   
 Yes 7 (4.0) 9 (5.1) 0.76 0.27–2.11
  1. aReference group for calculating odds ratios
  2. b ADHD subscales: A: DSM-IV inattentive symptoms / B: DSM-IV hyperactivity/ impulsive symptoms / C: DSM-IV ADHD symptoms total / D: DSM-IV ADHD index