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Table 3 Associations with psychological distress in both sexes

From: Prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among a national sample of in-school adolescents in Morocco

Variable Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) P-value Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) P-value
Socio-demographics
 Age in years
  13 or less 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  14–15 1.46 (1.19, 1.79) < 0.001 1.42 (1.07, 1.89) 0.016
  16 or more 2.26 (1.89, 2.71) < 0.001 2.29 (1.73, 3.03) < 0.001
 Gender
  Female 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  Male 0.53 (0.45, 0.63) < 0.001 0.30 (0.23, 0.40) < 0.001
Social distress
 No close friends 2.53 (0.25, 3.24) < 0.001 1.98 (1.44, 2.73) < 0.001
 Bullied in past month
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 or 2 days 2.22 (1.87, 2.62) < 0.001 1.95 (1.58, 2.40) < 0.001
  3–30 days 4.70 (3.70, 5.98) < 0.001 2.92 (2.16, 3.94) < 0.001
 Physically attacked in past year
  0 times 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 time 1.89 (1.51, 2.37) < 0.001 1.47 (1.08, 2.00) 0.015
  2 or more times 2.63 (2.13, 3.23) < 0.001 1.02 (0.72, 1.46) 0.987
 In physical fight in past year
  0 times 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 time 1.00 (0.83, 1.21) 0.989 1.20 (0.89, 1.60) 0.232
  2 or more times 1.66 (1.34, 2.04) < 0.001 1.89 (1.34, 2.67) < 0.001
Social-environmental factors
 Mostly/always feeling hungry 2.30 (1.78, 2.98) < 0.001 1.49 (1.07, 2.08) 0.019
 Low peer support 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) < 0.001 1.15 (0.97, 1.35) 0.098
 Parental emotional neglect 1.29 (1.09, 1.52) 0.003 1.37 (1.07, 1.75) 0.014
 Parents never check home work 1.27 (1.02, 1.58) 0.031 1.11 (0.90, 1.36) 0.326
 Parents disrespect privacy 1.27 (1.07, 1.50) 0.006 1.33 (1.01, 1.77) 0.045
 Passive smoking in past week
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1–6 days 1.18 (1.04, 1.33) 0.010 0.89 (0.67, 1.17) 0.388
  All 7 days 2.17 (1.78, 2.64) < 0.001 1.19 (0.82, 1.71) 0.362
 School truancy (past month)
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1–2 days 1.49 (1.28, 1.74) < 0.001 1.37 (1.08, 1.74) 0.009
  3 or more days 2.35 (1.81, 3.04) < 0.001 1.87 (1.23, 2.83) 0.004
Health risk behaviours
 Current tobacco use 1.67 (1.34, 2.07) < 0.001 0.68 (0.48, 1.01) 0.098
 Current cannabis use 2.07 (1.56, 2.74) < 0.001 0.96 (0.57, 1.61) 0.877
 Ever used amphetamine 2.34 (1.86, 2.94) < 0.001 1.58 (0.91, 2.75) 0.100
 Leisure time sedentary behaviour/day
  < 3 h 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  3–4 h 1.29 (1.09, 1.53) 0.003 1.04 (0.73, 1.48) 0.820
  5–7 h 1.74 (1.42, 2.14) < 0.001 1.68 (1.23, 2.30) < 0.001
  ≥ 8 h 2.70 (2.10, 3.46) < 0.001 1.71 (1.24, 2.36) < 0.001
 Injury in past 12 months
  0 times 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 time 2.00 (1.74, 2.29) < 0.001 1.50 (1.20, 1.87) < 0.001
  2 or more times 3.23 (2.73, 3.82) < 0.001 2.22 (1.69, 2.93) < 0.001
 Soft drink intake/day
  0 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 0.95 (0.74, 1.22) 0692 0.85 (0.61, 1.19) 0.335
  2 1.21 (0.91, 1.63) 0.194 0.94 (0.65, 1.36) 0.756
  3 or more 1.28 (1.06, 1.54) 0.011 1.00 (0.60, 1.64) 0.986
 Fast food consumption/week
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 0.96 (0.80, 1.14) 0.618 0.92 (0.67, 1.26) 0.600
  2 1.04 (0.90, 1.20) 0.593 0.86, 0.65, 1.13) 0.282
  3–7 days 1.52 (1.19, 1.94) < 0.001 1.04 (0.75, 1.44) 0.828
 Fruit and vegetable intake
  < 1 serving/day 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 or 2 0.66 (0.51, 0.86) 0.003 0.99 (0.74, 1.33) 0.965
  3 or 4 0.51 (0.39, 0.67) < 0.001 0.86 (0.61, 1.20) 0.374
  5 or more 0.55 (0.42, 0.72) < 0.001 0.88 (0.61, 1.28) 0.499
  1. CI Confidence Interval