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Table 4 Associations with psychological distress among males and females

From: Prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among a national sample of in-school adolescents in Morocco

Variable Male Female
Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) p-value
Socio-demographics
 Age in years
  13 or less 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  14–15 0.77 (0.46, 1.29) 0.321 2.12 (1.48, 3.03) < 0.001
  16 or more 1.23 (0.75, 2.02) 0.414 3.52 (2.50, 4.95) < 0.001
Social distress
 No close friends 2.88 (1.73, 4.81) < 0.001 1.61 (1.14, 2.28) 0.007
 Bullied in past month
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 or 2 days 1.61 (1.08, 2.39) 0.020 2.24 (1.60, 3.15) < 0.001
  3–30 days 2.50 (1.63, 3.82) < 0.001 3.41 (2.24, 5.18) < 0.001
 Physically attacked in past year
  0 times 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 time 1.64 (1.00, 2.70) 0.051 1.17 (0.73, 1.88) 0.516
  2 or more times 1.02 (0.67, 1.57) 0.921 1.19 (0.62, 2.31) 0.594
 In physical fight in past year
  0 times 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 time 1.12 (0.77, 1.64) 0.549 1.38 (0.94, 2.03) 0.099
  2 or more times 1.98 (1.33, 2.96) < 0.001 1.86 (1.21, 2.87) 0.005
Social-environmental factors
 Mostly/always feeling hungry 2.14 (1.31, 3.48) 0.002 1.05 (0.69, 1.61) 0.805
 Low peer support 0.99 (0.77, 1.27) 0.915 1.23 (1.05, 1.44) 0.013
 Parental emotional neglect 1.28 (0.91, 1.81) 0.404 1.43 (0.98, 2.08) 0.063
 Parents never check home work 1.36 (0.99, 1.86) 0.057 0.92 (0.68, 1.26) 0.610
 Parents disrespect privacy 1.20 (0.78, 1.85) 0.404 1.32 (0.88, 2.00) 0.182
 Passive smoking in past week
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1–6 days 0.88 (0.67, 1.14) 0.329 0.90 (0.65, 1.25) 0.519
  All 7 days 1.15 (0.77, 1.71) 0.494 1.27 (0.76, 2.12) 0.353
 School truancy (past month)
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1–2 days 1.58 (1.15, 2.17) 0.006 1.28 (0.92, 1.79) 0.146
  3 or more days 2.12 (1.28, 3.51) 0.004 2.01 (1.04, 3.89) 0.039
Health risk behaviours
 Current tobacco use 0.81 (0.53, 1.24) 0.326 0.50 (0.19, 1.28) 0.147
 Current cannabis use 0.94 (0.55, 1.58) 0.804 1.09 (0.30, 3.90) 0.896
 Ever used amphetamine 1.36 (0.75, 2.47) 0.303 1.96 (0.57, 6.76) 0.285
 Leisure time sedentary behaviour/day
  < 3 h 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  3–4 h 0.75 (0.47, 1.19) 0.214 1.26 (0.83, 1.90) 0.273
  5–7 h 1.28 (0.88, 1.87) 0.193 2.06 (1.25, 3.41) 0.005
  ≥ 8 h 1.36 (0.80, 2.31) 0.250 1.91 (1.14, 3.20) 0.014
 Injury in past 12 months
  0 times 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 time 1.55 (1.18, 2.04) 0.002 1.37 (0.95, 1.97) 0.090
  2 or more times 1.75 (1.27, 2.42) < 0.001 3.09 (1.73, 5.48) < 0.001
 Soft drink intake/day
  0 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 1.18 (0.76, 1.84) 0.459 0.70 (0.50, 0.99) 0.043
  2 1.56 (1.00, 2.45) 0.050 0.63 (0.33, 1.20) 0.160
  3 or more 1.13 (0.56, 2.29) 0.729 0.89 (0.52, 1.52) 0.664
 Fast food consumption/week
  0 days 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 1.08 (0.72, 1.65) 0.689 0.80 (0.52, 1.22) 0.293
  2 0.98 (0.67, 1.43) 0.905 0.77 (0.47, 1.27) 0.302
  3–7 days 0.89 (0.62, 1.27) 0.515 1.13 (0.75, 1.71) 0.549
 Fruit and vegetable intake
  < 1 serving/day 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  1 or 2 1.11 (0.65, 1.91) 0.705 0.99 (0.62, 1.59) 0.573
  3 or 4 0.95 (0.58, 1.57) 0.852 0.86 (0.56, 1.32) 0.494
  5 or more 1.16 (0.67, 2.00) 0.595 0.79 (0.51, 1.23) 0.294
  1. CI Confidence Interval